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Term Definition
四处立塔《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)诸佛之常法于四处立支提:一生处,二得道处,三初转法轮处,四涅槃处。见法苑珠林三十七。
四处问讯《佛学大辞典》
(术语)僧堂之四板头烧香问讯,谓之四处问讯。见象嚣笺十。
四夜八昼《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)一昼夜为十二时。四夜为戍亥子丑,八昼为由寅至酉。故寅刻为夜阴昼阳和合之时。见秘藏记钞二。
四大《佛学大辞典》
(名数)地水火风也。依俱舍论言,此四大有假实二种,其实者,称为四界或四大界,假者,单云四大。实之四大,一地大,性坚,支持万物。二水大,性湿,收摄万物。三火大,性暖,调熟万物。四风大,性动,生长万物。此四者,以造作一切之色法,故谓之能造四大。其体触处所摄,唯为身根所得。身根触诸色而觉知坚湿暖动也。假之四大,则世间所称之地水火风也,此四大虽其实为地水火风及色声香味触九法之假和合,然其中坚性最增盛者名为地,乃至动性最增盛者名为风。要之实之四大为能造,假之四大属于所造也。若据成实论意,则无实之四大,唯有假之四大,以色香味触之四尘为一切色法之能造。四尘和合,方成四大。故四大唯为假法。要之一切有形有质之物,无非为四大之所造(俱舍),无非为四大之和合(成实),故称之为大也。或以之分为二种,称正报之人身为内之四大,或称为有识之四大,依报之诸色曰外之四大,或云无识之四大。圆觉经曰:“妄认四大为自身相。”又曰:“恒作此念,我今此身四大和合,所谓发毛爪齿皮肉筋骨髓脑垢色皆归于地,唾涕脓血津液涎沫痰泪精气大小便利皆归于水,暖气归于火,动转归于风。四大各离,今者妄身当在何处?”璎珞经二曰:“四大有二种:一有识,二无识。”最胜王经五曰:“譬如机关由业转,地水火风共身,随彼因缘招异果,同在一处相违害,如四毒蛇居一箧。”梵Mahābhūta。【四大】(名数)俱舍论所说,地水火风也。此四者广大,造作生出一切之色法(物质),故名四大。
四大不调《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)人身自地水火风四大而成,此四大之调和若缺,则生四百四病。最胜王经五以四蛇喻四大。见“四蛇”条。
四大乘宗《佛学大辞典》
(流派)见四个大乘条。
四大佛护院《佛学大辞典》
(名数)即四大护院。
四大元无主《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)禅林类集曰:“肇法师遭秦王难,临就刑说偈云:四大元无主,五阴本来空,将头临白刃,犹似斩春风。”见“四大”条。
四大名山《佛学大辞典》
(名数)普陀山,五台山,峨眉山,九华山也。普陀山志一曰:“佛经称地藏普贤文殊观音诸道场曰地水火风。为四大结聚:九华,地也(地藏);峨眉,火也(普贤);五台,风也(文殊);普陀,水也(观音)。”后世遂称九华峨眉五台普陀为四大名山。普陀山为观世音菩萨住处。五台山为文殊菩萨住处。峨眉山为普贤菩萨住处。九华山为地藏菩萨住处。其详分见各山条下。
四大塔《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见“四塔”条。
四大声闻《佛学大辞典》
(名数)须菩提,摩诃迦旃延,摩诃迦叶,摩诃目犍连也。于法华会座此四人为中根之机,此四人,于信解品得领解。于授记品受当来作佛之记。

又弥勒下生经以迦叶,屠钵叹,宾头卢,罗云为四大声闻。见“四大弟子”条。

四大天王《佛学大辞典》
(名数)又名四天王,四王天。法华经序品曰:“四大天王。”详见“四天王”条。
四大寺《佛学大辞典》
(名数)五代会要曰:“周显德四年九月,赐京城内新修四大寺额,以天清显静显宁圣寿为名。圣寿后又改曰显圣。是则四寺之始也。”
四大师《佛学大辞典》
(职位)唐朝有四大师之称号,依敕补之。佛祖统祀三十九曰:“诏法华智威法师,补四大师朝散大夫。”
四大弟子《佛学大辞典》
(名数)佛弟子中以舍利弗,目连,须菩提,摩诃迦叶为四大弟子。智度论谓舍利弗目连为佛左右弟子。须菩提修无诤定,为行空第一,摩诃迦叶行十二头陀,为头陀第一。佛在世时,有人欲求今世之果者,供养此四人。辄得如愿。

又迦叶,宾头卢,罗云,君屠钵叹之四人也。法护译之弥勒下生经曰:“尔时世尊告迦叶曰:吾今年已衰耗,向八十岁,然今如来有四大声闻,堪任游化,智慧无尽,众德具足。云何为四?所谓大迦叶比丘,屠钵叹比丘,宾头卢比丘,罗云比丘。汝等四大声闻,要不般涅槃,须吾法没尽,然后乃当般涅槃。”法华文句记一曰:“四大弟子者:迦叶,宾头卢,罗云,君屠钵叹。”

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