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Term Definition
四天王合行法《佛学大辞典》
(修法)以四天王为本尊,乃攘灾厄请招福德之修法也。
四天王天《佛学大辞典》
(界名)即四天王所居之天也。
四天王经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)一卷,宋智严等译。说每月六斋日四天王从七曜二十八宿下四洲,伺察众生之善恶,而报告于帝释。
四天珠《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)又书四点。密宗之数珠,每七颗或二十一颗,插入异类异种或同珠之小形者四颗,是非有经轨可凭,惟彼宗常诵真言以七遍或二十一遍为常规,故为其记子而加之也。
四夷《佛学大辞典》
(名数)四波罗夷之略。
四夷戒《佛学大辞典》
(名数)四波罗夷之戒法也。
四夷罪《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四波罗夷之罪过也。
四夹侍《佛学大辞典》
(名数)释迦如来之四夹侍也。
四如实观《佛学大辞典》
(术语)唯识宗四加行位之观法也。
四如意足《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又名四神足。为三十七科道品中次四正勤所修之行品。四种之禅定也。前四念处中修实智慧,四正勤中修正精进,精进智慧增多,定力小弱,今得四种之定以摄心,则定慧均等,所愿皆得,故名如意足,又名神足。如意者如意而得也。为六通中之身如意通。又总曰六通,是定所生之果也。足者所依之义,如身依足而立。又六通等之如意,依此四种之定而起,故名定为足,又神者灵妙之德,此定为能生灵妙果德之所依,故名足。智度论十九曰:“问曰:四念处四正勤中已有定,何以故不名如意足?答曰:彼虽有定,智慧精进力多,定力弱故,行者不得如意愿。四种定者:欲为主得定,精进为主得定,心为主得定,思惟为主得定。”然四如意足之称目,异说颇多,智度论及法界次第,列欲,精进,心,思惟,辅行七列欲,精进,一心,思惟,是同一也。俱舍论则列欲勤心观,四教仪则列欲念心慧。俱舍光记二十五曰:“此四者依加行而立名:一欲神足,欲于加行位起此定,依欲之力,故定引发而起。二勤神足,于加行位勤修此定,依勤之力,故定引发而起。三心神足,于加行位,一心专住依心之力,故定引发而起。四观神足,于加行位观察理,依观之力,故定引发而起。加行位中虽有多法,而此四法资益最胜,故从此四者而名。”俱舍论二十五曰:“何缘于定立神足名,诸灵妙德所依止故。(中略)神谓受用种种神境,分一为多,乃至广说。足谓欲等四三摩地,此中佛说定果名神,欲等所生等持名足。”
四姓《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一婆罗门Brāhmaṇa,为净行者,或出家,或在家,修净行而求涅槃者。二刹帝利Kṣatriya,为王种,奕世君临,统辖其余之三姓者。三吠舍Vaiśya,旧曰毗舍。为商贾,贸易有无者。四戍陀罗Sūdra,旧云首陀,为农民及奴,身勤稼穑者。四姓中以婆罗门为最尊贵,与余三姓不同行。盖此四姓之别,自韦陀论师而起。因韦陀论为最古代盛行也。譬喻经曰:“诸外人计,梵王生四姓:王口生婆罗门,臂生刹利,胁生毗舍,足生首陀。”提婆论曰:“外道韦陀论说:从那罗延天脐中生大莲华,从莲华生梵天祖公,彼梵天作一切命无命物。从梵天口中生婆罗门,两臂中生刹利,两脾中生毗舍,从两脚跟生首陀。”寄归传四曰:“五天之地,皆以婆罗门为贵胜。凡有坐席,并不与余三姓同行。”
四威仪《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一行,二住,三坐,四卧。此四者各有仪则不损威德,谓之四威仪。菩萨善戒经五曰:“威仪苦者名身四威仪:一者行,二者住,三者坐,四者卧。菩萨若行若坐,昼夜常调恶业之心。忍行坐苦,非时不卧,非时不住,所住内外若床若地若草若叶,于此四处常念供养佛法僧宝。”释氏要览下曰:“经律中皆以行住坐卧名四威仪,其他动止,皆四所摄。”【四威仪】(名数)行住坐卧四种之作法也。见“威仪”条。
四孟月《佛学大辞典》
(名数)孟春(正月)孟夏(四月)孟秋(七月)孟冬(十月)也。即四季最初之月。
四安乐《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见“四安乐行”条。
四安乐行《佛学大辞典》
(名数)法华经安乐行品所说之四种安乐行,安行法华之法也。(一)身安乐行。谓身当远离十种之事:一豪势,二神人邪法,三凶险嬉戏,四旃陀罗,五二乘众,六欲想,七五种不男之人,八危害之处,九讥嫌之事,十畜养年少之弟子沙弥小儿。身既远离此十事,则得常好坐禅,修摄其心,故名身安乐行。(二)口安乐行。谓当远离四种之语:一不乐说人及经典之过,二不轻慢他,三不赞他,亦不毁他,四不生悲恨之心。口能如是,则得安乐修摄其心,故名口安乐行。(三)意安乐行。意远离四种之过:一嫉谄,二轻骂,三以大行诃骂小行之人,四争竞。意远离此四种,则得常好安乐,修养其心。故名意安乐行。(四)誓愿安乐行。宜于此法华经向不闻不知不觉之众生,起慈悲心,谓我欲得阿耨菩提,以神通力智慧力引之使入是法中,发此誓愿常好修摄自行,故名誓愿安乐行。
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