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Term Definition
四宗《佛学大辞典》
(名数)是通大小乘而判其宗旨者,有二种,一北齐大衍所立,一净影所立,名异义同也。今为便于解释计,先述净影。一立性宗,是小乘中之浅者。说诸法各有体性者。但其说皆由因缘而生,与外道之立自然性者不同。如发智,六足,俱舍等诸论所说,萨婆多宗是也。二破性宗,是小乘之深者。说诸法为因缘生虚假无性者。与前宗立法之自性者不同。但尚许法之假相。如土木之城,为因缘生,无实性,亦非无假城,是观因缘之相而破自性,如成实宗是也。三破相宗,是大乘之浅者。说诸法如阳炎,自性空前宗虚假之相亦无,譬如人远见阳炎以为水,近见则不唯无自性,并水相亦无,是观法之空性而破相也。四显实宗,是大乘之深者,说诸法在妄故,妄想无体,起必依真,真是如来藏,此真性缘起而成生死涅槃为真之缘起故,无不真实者。此中前二宗经同论异,经同者,四阿含经也,论别者,如前所言。后二者,经论皆同一也(案三论之嘉祥及明之智旭亦大乘一味之见也),见大乘义章一。次述大衍之四宗,一因缘宗,立因缘生色心之实法者,即前之立法宗也。二假名宗,立诸法无实性,仅有假名者,即前之破性宗也。三不真宗,立诸法自性空,假相亦空,如阳炎之无自性,亦非无相者。是尽空理而未显真性,故名不真宗。即前之破相宗也。四真宗,说真如法性之随缘而成诸法者。即前之显实宗也。见五教章上之二。【四宗】(名数)净影所立之四宗。见“宗”条。又,因明之宗法有四种,谓之四宗:一遍所许宗,如言眼见色,彼此两宗皆共许者。二先承禀宗,如佛弟子向佛弟子立诸法皆空,鸺鹠弟子相对立有实我。三傍凭义宗,如立声为无常,欲傍凭显无我之义者。四不顾论宗,除前三宗,随立者所乐,所欲建立,更无所顾。其中不可立前三者,何则?第一宗立已成,先已共许,何须建立。第二宗同宗之人相对立先承之义,亦是立已成。第三宗非言陈之所诤,言陈外之别义,不得立为正论,假令许之,于因必犯差别相违之过,唯第四之显宗可以为宗,此以立者之意所乐故也。见因明大疏上。

又齐大衍寺昙隐,于其教判立四宗:一萨婆多部,雪山部等为因缘宗(又立性宗)。二经量部,成实论等为假名宗(又破性宗)。三般若经为不真宗(又破相宗)。四涅槃经,华严经为真宗(又显实宗)。

四宗大乘《佛学大辞典》
(名数)与四家大乘同。见大乘条。
四定《佛学大辞典》
(术语)色界天之四禅定也。寄归传曰:“敬修四定,善护七篇。”
四定记《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四句之定答也。见“四记”条。
四家《佛学大辞典》
(名数)地持论七说四家:一般若家,二谛家,三舍烦恼家,四苦清家。章安以之配于台家四教,般若家为别教,谛家为圆教,舍烦恼家为通教,苦清家为三藏教。见法华玄义十。
四家大乘《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见“大乘”条。
四家大乘四种言说《佛学大辞典》
(名数)释摩诃衍论所说五种中,以前四配于四家大乘,以第五如实言说为真言。一相言说,为法相宗。彼依深密经之法相品而立名,即立三科百法等相,约于三性以明宗也,今就色等诸相而起言说,尤为符合。二梦言说,为三论宗。彼之言意,三界如梦,一切所有之所作皆为梦中所作,若一念之梦觉,即为无生法体,依此义以建立真俗二谛而成一宗之义。故与梦言说之义相当。三执着言说,为天台宗。彼宗谈久远寿量之旨,为本门之实义,谓教主释尊之始于伽耶成佛,是尔前诸教之意,实说成佛已来甚大久远,是乃一经之冲微,今解执着言说为本所闻所作业,尤为相当。四无始言说,为华严宗。彼宗专谈本有称性之旨,故彼宗云修行亦竟成佛亦竟,一切众生久来如此,是与今无始言说之义相叶也。见二教论果宝十上。
四宾主《佛学大辞典》
(名数)临济曹洞二家各立四宾主,其义不同。临济之宾主为师弟之别名:一主中主,有师家鼻孔者。二宾中主,有学人鼻孔者。三主中宾,无师家鼻孔者。四宾中宾,无学人鼻孔者。曹洞之宾主为体用之异名。一主中宾,体中之用也。二宾中主,用中之体也。三宾中宾,用中之用,于头上安头也。四主中主,体中之体,物我双亡,人法俱泯也。
四寮《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)清规之四寮有二种:一亡僧章之四寮,即其所列之首座维那知客侍者是也。嗣法师遗书章之两序四寮及迁化章之蒙堂四寮,并有蒙堂之异名,以佛国白,大觉琏,参寥潜,九峰韶之四名德,曾居蒙堂,后人慕之,存四寮之名耳。
四寻思观《佛学大辞典》
(术语)小乘俱舍之四善根位,修十六行相观,成实宗修无常观。而大乘之法相宗于此位修四寻思观与四如实观。是彼宗五位之第二加行位也。四寻思观者,于诸法有名,义,自性,差别之四种。名者,色受等之名也,义者,依名而诠之色受等体也,自性者,色受等各自之体性也,差别者,体中之种类差别也。如人之色受与天之色受等。诸法不过此四种。行者观此四法,是自己内心所变,如幻虚假之法,寻求思察此为假有实无,谓之四寻思观。以此推求之观为因,而生印可决定之智,不惟如实了知所取所缘之名等,是自心所变,为假有实无,犹了知印可能取能缘之名等四法,亦为假有实无,谓之四如实观。然此四寻思四如实,乃所发之观法也。就其能发之禅定而言。则一为明得定,二为明增定,三为印顺定,四为无间定。而暖,顶,忍,世第一法之四者,乃其所得之功德也。见唯识论九,百法问答钞六。
四导师《佛学大辞典》
(名数)法华经涌出品所说由地涌出之诸大菩萨中四上首也。经曰:“是菩萨中有四导师:一名上行,二名无边行,三名净行,四名安立行。是四菩萨,于其众中最为上首唱导之师。”
四尘《佛学大辞典》
(名数)色香味触也。凡色法以地水火风之四大种为能造,依之而造五根五境之色。即能造之四大与所造之十色皆为实色也。于此实色中以色香味触之四法,造山河草木等外器之法,是谓之四尘所造,无单一色尘乃至触之物体也(声有无不定故不言之)。小乘有部宗立之为微聚之实法,大乘之唯识则立之为和合之假色。又众生内身之根处,其扶尘根亦四尘所成者也。其胜义根虽为触境所摄之四大所成,然无色香味之和合,故惟为能造之四大与眼根,乃至能造之四大与身根而巳。但小乘有部宗之五根据九事俱生或十事俱生之义,谓胜义之五根,亦为四尘所成也。见百法问答钞一。
四山《佛学大辞典》
(譬喻)以譬生老病死之四相。谓生老病死,逃避无所,如四山合来也。涅槃经二十七曰:“有四大山,从四方来,欲害人民。四大山者,即生老病死也。”止观一曰:“四山合来无逃避处。”

又别译阿含经四以四山喻老病死衰之四相,一老山。谓人老迈,则形色枯悴,精神昏昧,老山能坏一切壮年之盛色也。二病山,谓人之四大不调。病山能坏一切之强健也。三死山,谓人之身尽命终。死山能坏一切之寿命也。四衰耗山,谓人之富贵荣华衰耗。衰耗山能坏一切之荣华富贵也。

又增一阿含经四意断品以四山譬老病死及无常。

四师《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)华严宗谓五祖宗密以后之子睿,净源,义和,李通玄为四师。
四帖疏《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)唐善导大师观无量寿经之疏,有四卷,故谓为光明四帖之疏。又曰证定疏。谓证得定之人之疏也。以善导发得三昧,蒙圣者冥加,而造经之科文故也。选择集下曰:“条录观经之文之刻,颇感灵瑞,屡预圣化。既蒙圣冥加,然作经科文,举世而称证定疏,人贵之如佛经法。”
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