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Term Definition
四度传授《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)四度加行之传授也。
四度加行《佛学大辞典》
(术语)密家传授十八道,金刚界,胎藏界。护摩等四法之四度修行也。【四度加行】(名数)四度加行者,密法之传授,分为四番,复续之为一,皆传之法也。此事非上古之正规,乃末法之略式。四度者:一十八道,二胎藏,三金刚,四护摩也。论其次第,其初皆为十八道,其余三度,次第不同。或依胎,金,护摩之次第,或依胎,护摩,金之次第,或依金,胎,护摩之次第,而授与之。授与四度加行,后有传法灌顶之授与。其日数,先就十八道而言,其为十八道禀受,于前行一百日间,使写十八道次第,已后,受者蒙次第之传授而谙诵之,又教以印结之方而谙练之,其间又一百日。最后之三七日乃为十八道之正行,其余三度之传授,亦如此,各二百日,统合为八百日,由是传法灌顶之前行等,又二百日,前后共一千日,事乃毕。是乃四度加行创设当时诸流一般之通规也。其后阿阇梨简略日数,诸流均于百九十九日内满足四度。十八道前行五十日,其次一七日为十八道之正行,其次五十日为金之前行,次七日为金之正行,次五十日为胎之前行,次七日为胎之正行,次三七日为护磨之前行,次七日为护磨之正行,共经百九十九日也。更有减一度之行为三七日即满者。
四度行法《佛学大辞典》
(修法)又云四度之加行。一十八道之行法,二胎藏界之行法,三金刚界之行法,四护摩之行法,是密教一般之行法也。
四度行用《佛学大辞典》
(书名)记四度加行之次第者也。又名次第。
四弃《佛学大辞典》
(名数)比丘之四波罗夷罪谓之四弃。以犯此罪者,永弃于佛法之边外故也。见“波罗夷”条。楞严经七曰:“比丘比丘尼四弃八弃。”
四弘《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四弘誓愿也。见“四弘誓愿”条。
四弘誓《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一切之菩萨,通发四种之弘誓:一众生无边誓愿度,二烦恼无尽誓愿断,三法门无量誓愿学,四佛道无上誓愿成。见止观大意。【四弘誓】(术语)四弘誓愿之略。
四弘誓愿《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语僧那,译曰誓愿。诸佛有总愿别愿,四弘誓愿为总愿,一切菩萨初发心时,必发此愿。以所愿广普故曰弘,自制其心故曰誓,志求满足故曰愿。缘四真谛而发此四愿也。止观大意谓一众生无边誓愿度,是缘苦谛而度无边众生之愿也。二烦恼无数誓愿断,是缘集谛,而断无尽烦恼之愿也。三法门无尽誓愿学,是缘道谛,而学无尽法门之愿也。四佛道无上誓愿成,是缘灭谛,而成无尽佛道之愿也。往生要集上末曰:“一众生无边誓愿度,二烦恼无数誓愿断,三法门无尽誓愿知,四无上菩提誓愿证。”心地观经七曰:“一切菩萨复有四愿成就有情住持三宝,大海劫终不退转。云何为四:一者誓度一切众生,二者誓断一切烦恼,三者誓学一切法门,四者誓证一切佛果。”
四归法《佛学大辞典》
(术语)归于三宝及戒而生四不坏信,称为四归法。璎珞本业经下曰:“佛子,次第为受四归法,归佛归法归僧归戒,得四不坏信心故。”
四律《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见四律五论项。
四律五论《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见四字部四律五论条。【四律五论】(名数)四律者:一、十诵律Sarvāstivāda-vinaya,六十一卷,后秦弗若多罗译。是五部中之萨婆多部也。二、四分律Dharmagupta-vinaya,六十卷,姚秦佛陀耶舍译,是五部中之昙无德部也。三、僧祇律Sāṅghika-vinaya,四十卷,东晋佛陀跋陀罗等译。本名摩诃僧祇律Mahāsāṅgha,是根本窟内之上座部也。四、五部律Mahiśāsaka-vinaya,三十卷,宋佛陀什等译,具名弥沙塞部和醯五分律Mahīśāsakanikāya-pañcavarga-vinaya,是五部中之弥沙塞部也。其他五部中之迦叶遗部,唯传戒本(解脱戒经)广律未传,又五部中之婆苏富多罗部,戒律广本皆未传,五论者:一、毗尼母论Vinaya-mātrikā-śāstra八卷,失译。本名毗尼母经。二、摩得勒伽论,十卷。宋僧伽跋摩译。具名萨婆多部毗尼摩得勒伽Sarvāstivādanikāya-vinaya-mātrikā,此二论是依萨婆多者。三、善见论Samanta-pāsādikā,十八卷,萧齐僧伽跋陀罗译。本名善见律毗婆沙Sudarśana-vibhāṣā-vinaya,此解四分律者,四、萨婆多论。九卷,失译。本名萨婆多毗尼毗婆沙Sarvāstivāda-vinaya-vibhāṣā,此释十诵律者。五、明了论。一卷,陈真谛译。本名律二十二明了论Vnaya-dvāviṁsati-prasannārtha-śāstra,此依十八部中之正量部者。
四微《佛学大辞典》
(名数)色香味触四种之极微也。此四微为色法之元素,依四微而成地水火风四大,依四大而成五智。是为成实论之宗义。中论疏四末曰:“成实论云:四微成四大,四大成五根。”止观五曰:“镜中能成四微尚不可得,况所成幻柱?”同辅行曰:“言四微者,色香味触。”观心二百门曰:“能生树根,既具四微。所生枝条,岂不具四微耶?”止观五曰:“法有者,即是色香味触。四微和合,故名法有。”同辅行曰:“四微者,色香味触。”
四德《佛学大辞典》
(名数)大乘大般涅槃所具之德也。一常德,涅槃之体,恒不变而无生灭,名之为常,又随缘化用常不绝,名之为常。二乐德,涅槃之体,寂灭永安,名之为乐,又运用自在,所为适心,名之为乐。三我德,解我有二种:一就体自实名为我,如涅槃经哀叹品中所谓:“若法是实是真是主是依,性不变易是名为我。”二就用自在名为我,如涅槃经高贵德王品所谓:“有大我故名大涅槃,大自在故名为大我。云何名为大自在耶?有八自在则名为我。”(见“八自在”条)。四净德,涅槃之体解脱一切之垢染,名之为净,又随化处缘而不污,名之为净(大乘义章十八)。法华玄义四曰:“破二十五有烦恼名净,破二十五有业名我,不受二十五有报为乐,无二十五有生死名常,常乐我净名为佛性显。”说此常乐我净,为涅槃经一部之所诠,故涅槃经谓之谈常教。
四德乐邦《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)具四法之安乐世界也。即涅槃之都是。涅槃具有常乐我净之四大德,故有此名。
四德处《佛学大辞典》
(名数)若近善人则闻正法,闻正法则具四德处:一慧德处,由闻正法而生大智慧,故名慧德处。二实德处,以是智慧见真谛之空理,故名实德处。三舍德处,见真空而离烦恼,故名舍德处。四寂灭德处,见空理而烦恼尽,故心得寂灭,故名寂灭德处。见成实论二。
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