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Term Definition
四不生《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一自不生,二他不生,三俱不生,四无不生。此为四句推捡。见“四句”条。【四不生】(名数)一、不自生,法者不由自因生也。二、不他生,法者不由他因生也。三、不共生,法者不由自他之共因生也。四、不无因生,法者不由无因生也。中观论偈曰:“诸法不自生,是不从他生,不共不无因,是故知无生。”
四不见《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一鱼不见水,鱼以水为居宅,游泳水中,无所障碍,故曰鱼不见水。二人不见风,风者但有声响可闻,而形相不可见,故曰人不见风。三迷不见性,灵明觉知之性,人人本具,但为烦恼无明所障覆,而不了知,故曰迷不见性。四悟不见空,学人既觉了灵知之性,本来空寂,而此空性亦不可得,故曰悟不见空。见圆觉经钞。
四不退《佛学大辞典》
(名数)净土门立四不退。于以上三不退加处不退也。即生西方净土者,不更退堕秽土也。见西方要决,迦才净土论上。

又法相宗立四不退:一、信不退,为十信位之第六信,以自后退不生邪见故也。二、位不退,为十住位之第七住,以自后退不入二乘故也。三、证不退,为初地以上,以证得之法不退失故也。四、行不退,为八地以上,以有为与无为之行皆能修故也。见法华玄赞二。

四世《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)正像末之三时,以释尊在世时为圣世而加之,名为四世。
四世俗谛《佛学大辞典》
(名数)法相宗所立四种之俗谛也。真谛亦立四种,合成八谛。见“谛”条。
四业《佛学大辞典》
(名数)以上顺现等之三业加不定受业之一业者。见唯识论七、俱舍论十五、百法问答抄三。

又黑白等之四业:一黑黑业,恶业而感苦果者。因果皆为墨秽,故谓为黑黑。二白白业,善业而感乐果者。因果皆为净白,故名为白白。三黑白业,善恶交参者。四不黑不白业,离黑白之相者,即无漏业也。见涅槃经三十七、大乘义章七。【四业】(名数)见“业”条。【四业】(名数)一止观业,如上。二大日业,三金刚顶业,四苏悉地业,是日本慈觉分开遮那业,更置三业之学生也。

四个大乘《佛学大辞典》
(名数)华严,天台,真言,禅之四个也。此四者皆是实大乘而最行者。

又法相,三论,天台,华严也。

四个大法《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一安镇法,二炽盛光法,三七佛药师法,四普贤延命法。日本叡山称之为四个大法。
四个法要《佛学大辞典》
(仪式)一梵呗,先于法会之初,讽咏如来妙色身之偈,赞叹佛德,且静止外缘也。二散华,梵呗之次,唱愿我在道场等之偈,而散花供养佛也。三梵音,散华之次,唱十方所有胜妙华等之偈。以净音供养佛也。四锡杖,梵音之次,唱手执锡杖之偈而振锡杖也。此四事为法会中之最要者,故曰法要。又云法用。
四主《佛学大辞典》
(名数)无轮王时,赡部之一洲,分为四主:一东人主,自雪山以东至于东海,其气和畅宜人,为人主之国。二南象主,自雪山以南至于东海,暑湿宜象,为象主之国。三西宝主,自雪山以西至于南海,其地临海多出宝贝,为主宝之国。四北马主,其地寒劲宜马,为马主之国。见西域记一,释迦方志上。
四义平等《佛学大辞典》
(名数)谓心王与心所相应之义,有时间平等,所依平等,所缘平等,体事平等之四义也。
四乘《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梁光宅依法华经譬喻品羊鹿牛及大白牛车之四车,而立四乘教。见“四车”条。
四乘十地《佛学大辞典》
(术语)大乘同性经下于四乘各说十地:(一)声闻乘十地:一、受三归地,初受三归戒之位也。二、信地,信根成就之位也。三、信法地,信四谛理之位也。四、内凡夫地,修五停心观等之位也。五、学信戒地,三学成就之位也。六、八人地,见道之位也。七、须陀洹地,预流果之位也。八、斯陀含地,一来果之位也。九、阿那含果,不还果也。十、阿罗汉地,无学果也。(二)缘觉乘十地:一、苦行具足地,修戒行之位也。二、自觉深甚十二因缘地,修十二因缘观法之位也。三、觉了四圣谛地,修四谛观之位也。四、甚深利智地,生甚深无相智之位也。五、九圣道地,修八圣道之位也。六、觉了法界虚空界众生界地,觉了此三法界之位也。七、证寂灭地,见道之位也。八、六通地,得六神通之位也。九、彻和密地,证无学果之位也。十、习气渐薄地,侵害习气之位也。(三)菩萨乘十地,与以上大乘菩萨十地同。(四)佛乘十地:一、甚深难知广明智慧地,除细习气,于诸法得自在也。二、清净自分成严不思议明德地,转正法轮显深义自在也。三、善明日幢实相海藏地,开说三乘差别之法自在也。四、精妙金光功诸神通智德地,说八万法降四魔自在也。五、大轮威藏明德地,摧异邪法,伏恶行自在也。六、虚空内清净无垢炎光开相地,现六神通,示无常事自在也。七、广胜法界藏明界地,为诸菩萨显菩提自在也。八、普觉智藏能净无垢边无碍智通地,为诸菩萨授记别自在也。九、无边德庄严回向能照明地,为诸菩萨现方便自在也。十、毗卢舍那智海藏地,为诸菩萨能说法自在也。天台以此四地配于四教。问佛地有十地,岂非于果佛不平等乎?答:此经之意从佛德之别而论十地,非言初地为劣乃至第十地胜于前佛,是皆诸佛之境界,非诸菩萨二乘之所行,故经曰:佛有十地一切菩萨及声闻辟支佛等所不能行云云。出探要记七。
四乘家《佛学大辞典》
(术语)与四车家同。
四书《佛学大辞典》
(名数)宋云外之自度教苑清规曰:“新学读文于四书中,当自四教仪而始。”四书者天台之法界次第,四教仪,戒疏,小止观是也,见天台学则上。
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