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Term Definition
四净定《佛学大辞典》
(名数)四禅四无色八地之定,有味定,净定,无漏定之三种。其中净定有四种之别:一顺退分定,随顺味定将退本定时之位也。二顺住分定,为住于定之当分而不退不进之位也。三顺胜进分定,定力增进,顺于上地之定之位也。四顺决择分定。决择者以无漏智而名,净定之力愈增进,而顺于无漏智起无漏定所依之位也。如已上次第,顺于烦恼,自地,上地,无漏也。八地之净定有此四分,但有顶地之净定除顺决择分定,因彼定昧劣,不生无漏定故也。见俱舍论二十八。
四出偈《佛学大辞典》
(术语)“本有今无。本无今有。三世有法。无有是处。”此偈涅槃经九及十五,廿五,廿六(南本经)四处说之,是名四出偈。又名柱偈,四柱文。法华文句记六上曰:“此一偈四处出之,古人名为涅槃四柱,亦云四出偈。故知释不当理,涅槃室倾。”辅行五曰:“又以四出偈消,言四出者,此偈四处出之,古人名为涅槃四柱。”
四分《佛学大辞典》
(术语)华严大判一经为四分:一信分,二解分,三行分,四证分。见三藏法数十四。

又法相宗立八识,八识之心王,心所,体虽各一,而分别所起之用,则有四分:一相分。是为心内所现之境,心者虑知之法,虑知之法,必有所知之法,故心生时,心之自体自转变,而现所虑所托之境,此名所虑所托之境分。相者相状,心起时,浮于心前之相貌也。二见分,见者见照。能缘为义,缘其所变相分之见照作用也,识之自体变相分,共起能缘之用,此名见分。三自证分,见分虽知相分,而见分不能自知见分,如刀不能自斩刀也,故别有知见分之用,此名自证分。是为识之自体分,彼见分非他物,即此自体缘外(相分)之用也,今自体自证知此自用之见分,故名自证分。四证自证分。自证分自证之用谁证知之,于是从自证分更起能缘之用,使证知自证,此名证自证分。而知此证自证分者为谁,知之者,即前之自证分也。自证分为证之自体,则缘外之见分与缘内之证自证分,皆得知之。以见分与证自证分,是自证分缘内外之二用,体必能知用也,兼缘二分,故不要第五分。譬之店中之货物如相分,掌柜如见分,主人如自证分,证自证分如其妇。见分缘相分而不可缘自证分,犹如掌柜能差排货物,而不能关知主人之事,自证分得缘外之见分与内之证自证分,如主人得管理掌柜与其妇,证自证分之缘自证分,如妇知夫之事。此四分古师多立三分。证自证分合于自证分,护法菩萨之正义,乃立四分。起信论所说,业转现之三识,如其次第,恰当于自证分,见分,相分之三分。然而一切诸法无一不影现于相分中,但诸识之相分,影现之相不同耳,开示之则如图。

四分位点《佛学大辞典》
(术语)密教为标大日如来之德,大日为中心,此为满位,四方写发心点,修行点,菩提点(又曰空点,仰月点),涅槃点,表示分满不二,生佛一如之理。及窣塔婆之四方表为五大,书发心之,修行之,空点之,涅槃点之,即此义也。
四分僧戒本《佛学大辞典》
(书名)一卷。从法护尊者四分律列举戒相,前后附以偈文,使于说戒之日诵之。或称为戒经,或称为戒本。后秦佛陀耶舍译。唐南山道宣加注,称为四分含注戒本。后又有道宣新删定四分僧戒本一卷,怀素四分比丘戒本一卷,元照四分删定比丘尼戒本一卷,皆由四分律抄出者也。本书之注释如下:四分律比丘含注戒本三卷,唐道宣述。四分律含注戒本疏八卷,唐道宣撰。四分律含注戒本疏发挥记卷三,宋允堪述。释四分律含注戒本疏科八卷,宋元照录。四分律含注戒本疏行宗记排科二十一卷,唐道宣撰,宋元照述。以上三种,释道宣戒本疏者。四分比丘戒本疏二卷,唐定宾撰。释四分戒本序一卷,宋道言述。四分戒本缘起事义一卷,明广莫辑录。四分戒本如释十二卷,明弘赞绎,四分戒本约义四卷,明元贤述,四分戒本疏赞宗记二十卷,凝然撰。
四分宗《佛学大辞典》
(流派)南山之四分律宗也。见“律宗”条。
四分家《佛学大辞典》
(流派)立识心四分之宗。唯识之正义也。
四分开宗记《佛学大辞典》
(书名)十卷,东塔怀素作。释四分律藏。对于相部法砺之旧疏,而称为新疏,盛行于世。
四分律《佛学大辞典》
(经名)四律之一,六十卷。五部中昙无德部之律藏也。姚秦佛陀耶舍,竺佛念共译。佛灭后百年,法正尊者(又曰法护尊者,梵名昙无德)于上座部之律藏中契同己见者,采集成文,随说所止,而为一分,四度完结,故称为四分律。盖四分之名,非依义而判段章之名,乃四度结集之,分之为四夹,故名四分也。初分二十卷,二分十五卷,三分十四卷,四分十一卷。戒本疏一上曰:“佛灭百年,兴斯名教。相传云:于上座部搜括博要,契同己见者,集为一部。四度傅文,尽所诠相,故云四分。此据说所至,非义判也。故二十犍度离分三分,可义开耶?”资持记上一之一曰:“以法正尊者于根本部中随己所乐采集成文,随说所止,即为一分。凡经四番,一部方成,故号四分。非同章疏,约义判文。”寄归传一曰:“云十诵四分者,多是取其经夹以为题目。”本书之注释及关于本书之著述列如下:四分律疏六卷,道覆撰。四分律疏四卷,慧光撰。四分律疏二十卷,唐法砺撰。四分律疏饰宗义记二十六卷,唐定宾作,释法砺疏。四分律疏二十卷,现存卷九,唐智首撰。四分律删繁补阙行事钞十二卷,唐道宣撰。四分律行事钞资持记十六卷,唐道宣撰。宋元照述。四分律行事钞搜玄录二十卷,大鸿撰。四分律行事钞批十四卷,唐大觉撰。四分律行事钞简正记十七卷,宋景霄纂。释四分律行事钞科十二卷,宋元照录。诸家记标目一卷,慧显撰。以上六种释行事钞者。四分律删补随机羯磨疏八卷,唐道宣撰。四分律随机羯磨疏正源记八卷,宋允堪述。四分律羯磨疏科四卷,宋元照录。四分律羯磨疏济缘记排科二十二卷,唐道宣撰。宋元照述。四分律羯磨序解一卷,宋则安述。毗尼作持续释十五卷,唐道宣撰,读体释。四分律羯磨疏显缘钞二十卷,照远撰。以上六种释道宣羯磨疏者。四分律拾毗尼义钞六卷,佚下二卷,唐道宣撰。四分律拾毗尼义钞辅要记六卷,允堪撰。四分律拾毗尼义钞科一卷,宋元照录。以上二种释道宣义钞者。四分比丘尼钞六卷,唐道宣述。释四分比丘尼钞科文一卷,宋允堪述,释道宣比丘尼钞者。四分律疏九卷,道云撰。四分律疏七卷,道晖撰。四分律疏四卷,道乐撰。四分律疏二卷,洪理撰。四分律疏十卷,法愿撰。四分律疏二十卷,慧满撰。四分律开宗记二十卷,唐怀素撰。四分律名义标释四十卷,明弘赞辑。四分僧戒本一卷,后秦佛陀耶舍译。新删定四分僧戒本一卷,唐道宣删定。四分删定比丘尼戒本一卷,宋元照重定。四分比丘尼戒本一卷,读体依藏重刻,但存目录。四分律藏大小持戒犍度略一卷,明智旭释。四分律藏大小持戒犍度略释一卷,明智旭释,未刊。
四分律宗《佛学大辞典》
(流派)此宗以四分律为所依,以昙无德为开祖,道宣大成之。单云律宗者,即此宗也。见“律宗”条。
四力《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一自力。世间之人,宿世有善根,不依他人之教诫,自能以精进勇猛之力发菩提心,名为自力。二他力。世间之人,或由他人之教诫,或依他人之感动,遂发菩提心,名为他力。三因力。世间之人,前世修习大乘之法,依其因力今生见佛及菩萨,而发菩提心,名为因力。四方便力。世间之人,于现世亲近善友智识,闻其善巧方便之说法而发心,名为方便力。见地持经一。其中因力即自力,方便力即他力,但就人与法而分之。
四加行《佛学大辞典》
(名数)唯识五位中第二之加行位。有暖,顶,忍,世第一法之四种差别,故曰四加行。见“加行位”条。【四加行】(术语)于大乘法相宗以暖等四善根为五位中加行位,故以四加行为四善根之异名。
四劫《佛学大辞典》
(名数)有二种。【四劫】(名数)有二种:第一、一成劫,有二十增减,初一增减之间,由初禅天下至地狱界次第成立,后十九增减,自光音天(新曰极光净天)有情次第降生,最后无间地狱生有情一人,即为器世间有情世间之成立,谓之成劫。二住劫,二种世间安稳存住之时也。其间亦经二十劫。三坏劫,亦有二十增减。其中前十九增减,自初禅天至地狱之有情,各随其业因或出于二禅以上,或移于他界,至不留一人,谓之有情世间坏。其后一增减,发大火灾,荡尽初禅以下。谓之坏劫。四空劫,即坏了后,虚空无一物也,故曰空劫。亦有二十增减。依之四劫合成八十增减。增减者,于住劫所立之数量也。人寿八万四千岁每百年减一岁,至人寿十岁为一减,又自十岁,每百年增一岁,至八万四千岁为一增。此一增或一减,为一小劫。二十增减即二十小劫也,此为一成劫之量。余三劫之时量,与此等。第二、一坏劫,二成劫,三中劫,四大劫。见俱舍论十二。梵Kalpa。
四化法《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四无碍辩也。是为化度众生之法,故名化法。见璎珞本业经上。
四十一位《佛学大辞典》
(名数)为菩萨之阶位,十住,十行,十回向,十地,及等觉是也。以此四十位修行之功德,而庄严佛果,故言四十一地之璎珞等。见“五十二位”条。
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