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Term Definition
四取《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一欲取,于色声香味等五尘之境,贪欲取着也。二见取,于五蕴之法妄计取着我见边见等也。三戒取,如外道之狗戒牛戒,取着修行非理之戒禁也。四我语取,我语者发自我见我慢等我见之所说法,取着于此我见我慢谓之我语取。见佛性论。俱舍论摄百八之烦恼为四取:一欲取,欲界之钝使也,四谛修道五部各有贪瞋痴慢无明之五者,合为二十。四谛各有一疑,合前为二十四。再加十缠,为三十四物。是名欲取。二见取,三界各有十二见,苦谛下有身等五见,集灭二谛下各有邪见见取二者,合前为九,道谛下有邪见,见取,戒禁取三者,即为十二见。三界合为三十六见。此中除三界二戒禁取见(即苦谛下与道谛下之二者)之六见,其余三十见,名为见取。三戒禁取,即前之六见也,又名惑取。四我语取,上二界之钝使也。色界五部下各有贪慢无明三者,三五为十五。四谛下各有一疑,与前成为十九,无色界亦同之,合为三十六。是名我语取。我语者,身我之语也。上界之烦恼,不取于外境,缘身我就身我之语而起烦恼也。此四者总名为取者。以此烦恼能取执内外之法故也。俱舍论二十曰:“能取所有,故立取名。”又曰:“能为依执,故名取。”

又胜鬘经以四住地之惑为四取。百论疏四末曰:“胜鬘经以四住地为四取,故云有漏业为因,四取为缘,生三界内。”

又婆沙论以驰求四方名为四取。百论疏四末曰:“四取者,婆沙云:四方驰求名为四取。”梵Catur-prāmarśa。

四变《佛学大辞典》
(名数)阿赖耶识,以自种子为因缘,变现根尘器界等相,此依共业不共业之所感,有共相不共相二种。共相者,谓多人同感也。如山河等。虽是人人所变各别,然同在一处不相障碍,如众多之灯明,共在一室而不相障碍,一一各别,而处所无异也。不共相,为唯自变而自用者,如内之五根等。瑜伽六十六分别之为四种:一共中共,如山河等自界一切之有情,皆可受用者。二共中不共,如己田宅器物及人等一水四见。三不共中不共,为眼等之胜义根,以唯自识变而自身用之无他之受用也。四不共中共,如五根之扶尘根,他人亦缘之而受用之也。见唯识述记三本。
四句《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四句者如四句偈文,四句分别,四句推捡是也。四句偈文如诸行无常等偈。
四句分别《佛学大辞典》
(术语)以有空分别诸法,谓为有而非空,是第一句有门也。反之而谓为空而非有,是第二句,空门也。反之而谓为亦有亦空,是第三句,亦有亦空门也。反之而谓为非有非空,是第四句,非有非空门也。有无之法门尽于此,更无第五句。就一异有无等义而分别之,亦如是,谓之四句门。又云四句分别。此中初二句云两单,后二句为俱是俱非,亦曰双照双非。三论玄义曰:“若论涅槃,体绝百非,理超四句。”
四句成道《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)阿罗汉成道时,依无生智诵下四句偈。诸漏已尽。梵行已立。所作已辨。不受后有。谓之四句成道。
四句执《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一常句。外道计过去之我,即为今我,相续不断,执之为常,即堕于常见,是名常句。二无常句。外道计我今世始生,不由过去之因,执为无常,即堕于断见,是名无常。三亦常亦无常句。外道于上二句皆见有过失,便计我是常,身是无常,若尔则离身即无有我,此亦成过,此名亦常亦无常。四非常非无常句。外道计身有异故非常,我无异,故非无常,若尔则离身亦无有我,此亦成过,是名非常非无常句。见华严大疏十六。
四句推捡《佛学大辞典》
(术语)以自因他因共因无因之四句,推捡有为法,以证诸法之不生不可得也。例如梦为蝴蝶,此梦中之蝶,若由自生,则无梦,蝶可自生,若由他梦而生,则梦常生蝶,若蝶之自因与梦之他因,自他俱生,则自他各无生因,何由相合得生,若无自他而生,则如虚空,并无自他,可常生蝴蝶。如是而推诸法便为不生不可得也。中论一曰:“诸法不自生,亦不从他生。不共不无因,是故知无生。”
四向《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一须陀洹向,旧译曰入流,又曰逆流,新译为预流向。为断见道十五心间三界见惑之位。是为向须陀洹果之因位,故曰向。二斯陀含向,译曰一来。因之新就译名谓之一来向。为断欲界九品修惑中前六品之位。向义同前。三阿那含向,旧译曰不来,新云不还向。为断欲界九品修惑中后三品之位。向义同前。四阿罗汉向,译曰不生,新旧皆就梵名谓之阿罗汉向。为断色界无色界一切修惑之位。参照子果条。
四吠陀论《佛学大辞典》
(书名)见“韦陀”条。
四含《佛学大辞典》
(名数)又作四鋡。四阿含经也。
四味《佛学大辞典》
(名数)台宗所立五时教中,前四教谓之四味。五时中除醍醐味之法华也。
四品学法《佛学大辞典》
(书名)一卷,刘宋求那跋陀罗译。说曰:一戒行备具,二多知经法,三能化度人,是号真学,上品也。纯行五戒,号承法,中品也。但持四戒(五戒中之前四者),号依福学,下品也。一持身所护法,二持供养法,三持同学法,号散持,外品也。
四品法门经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)一卷,赵宋法贤译。经说法有四品类:一界法,六界十八界等也。二处法,十二处也。三缘起法,十二缘起也。四处非处法,道理非道理也。了此四品类,则为智人,不了则为愚人。
四唱《佛学大辞典》
(名数)法华地涌菩萨之上首,上行菩萨等四唱导师也。法华经涌出品曰:“是菩萨众中,有四导师:一名上行,二名无边行,三名净行,四名安立行。是四菩萨,于其众中最为上首唱导之师。”秘藏宝钥下曰:“娑界震裂,四唱一处。”
四善根《佛学大辞典》
(名数)暖,顶,忍,世第一法之四加行法也。见“加行位”条。【四善根】(名数)小乘俱舍成实于总相念住之后位,大乘法相宗于十回向之满位,生四种之善根。此乃小乘七方便中之后四方便,大乘法相宗五位中之第二加行位也。是正为见道之修行,故名加行。俱舍,成实,法相三宗,其行相各异。梵Kuśala-mūla。
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