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Term Definition
四喻《佛学大辞典》
(名数)有波罗夷之四喻。及佛寿之四喻。见“譬喻”条附录。
四土《佛学大辞典》
(名数)台家所立之四种佛土也。一凡圣同居土,人天凡夫及声闻缘觉等圣者,同居之国土也。此有净秽二种,如娑婆世界是同居之秽土,如西方极乐是同居之净土。二方便有余土,断见思烦恼出离三界生死之人之生处也。是为修小乘方便道断见思惑之人之生处,故名方便,尘沙无明之惑未尽,故曰有余。又为七方便人之所居,故名方便土,七方便人者,即藏教声闻缘觉二人(藏教中菩萨,三十四心断结成道,于菩萨之位,似未断惑,随而不生彼土,故除之),通教声缘菩三人,别教菩萨一人,圆教菩萨一人之人种类也。又此土称为变易土。变化同居土之依身,而易以方便土之依身,故名变易土。又其后变此方便土之依身,而易以实报土之依身,故名变易土。然而生于此方便土者有五人:一须陀洹,二斯陀含,三阿那含,四阿罗汉(前三果,思惑未尽,不能生方便土,故悉为阿罗汉,但从本位立名,于一阿罗汉之上举四果之别也),五辟支佛。文句六所谓:“五人断通惑者同生其土皆为菩萨,五人即之四果支佛”是也。此五人生于方便土,如其次第,经八,六,四,二万,十千劫,而发菩提心,涅槃经之说也。又谓有九人生于方便土。藏教声缘二人,通教声缘菩三人,别教三人,圆教一人也,别教三人者,至别教之菩萨第六住,断见思之烦恼,故六住已上者,生于方便土,此一人也,与十行十回向共为三人。圆教一人者,圆教十信位之六根净,以断见思烦恼故,报命尽,故生于方便土。观经妙宗钞上所谓:“九种行人合生彼土”是也。三实报无障碍土。方便土为证空理人之果报土,此上更有证一分中道之理之人之果报土,行真实之法,感得胜报,色心不相防,故名实报无障碍土。纯为菩萨之居,无有凡夫二乘,别教十地已上圆教十住已上之菩萨是也。四常寂光土。常有法身,本在常住之体也,寂者解脱,一切诸相永寂也。光者般若,照诸相之智慧也。此三德不纵不横,名曰秘密藏,是乃诸佛如来之所依所居,故谓之常寂光土。常寂光土有有相无相二义:一寂光土,唯理。净名经疏一曰:“寂光土者,妙觉极智所照,如如法界之理名之为国。但大乘法性即是真实智性,不同二乘偏真之理。”法华玄义七曰:“寂光理通,如镜如器,诸土别异,如像如假,业力所隔感见不同。”是如理者为如智之所依,故名曰土,非别有能依所依身土之别相。此一义也。二依圆教之极意,三千诸法,宛然本有,是乃真佛真土,常寂光之名,依之而立,此圆教之实义也。见净名经疏一等。
四圣《佛学大辞典》
(名数)十界分凡圣时,声闻缘觉菩萨佛之四界称四圣,余称六凡。

又罗什门人道生,僧肇,道融,僧睿四人曰关中四圣,或曰什门四圣。佛祖统纪三十六曰:“罗什弟子有生肇融睿,时号关中四圣。”释氏稽古略二曰:“师之第子曰生肇融睿,谓之什门四圣。”

又禅林以阿弥陀佛,观世音菩萨,大势至菩萨,大海众菩萨为四圣。敕修清规尊宿迁化起龛曰:“山门维那,向内合掌,中立,举往生咒,或四圣号,大众齐念。”

四圣十哲《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)稽古略二曰:“师之弟子。曰生、肇、融、叡。谓之什门四圣。加昙影、慧严、慧观、僧[(丰*力)/石]、道常、道标。谓之什门十哲。”佛祖通载八曰:“资学三千。拔萃有八。道生、僧肇、道融、僧叡、道恒、僧影、慧观、慧严等。各有著述。知别传明。”
四圣种《佛学大辞典》
(术语)见“圣种”条。
四圣行《佛学大辞典》
(名数)一粪扫衣,二乞食,三树下坐,四身心寂静。又名四良药,与行四依及四圣种大意同。南山业疏三下曰:“涅槃具显治本,故彼文云:出家之人有四种病,由此不得四沙门果。为有衣欲,乃至为有恶欲。有四良药能治此病:谓粪扫衣,乞食,树下坐,身心寂静。治有恶欲,故名四圣行。”
四圣言《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见“圣言”条。
四圣谛《佛学大辞典》
(术语)苦集灭道之四谛也。为圣者所见之谛理,故名圣谛。又圣者正也,为正真之谛理,故名圣谛。涅槃经十二曰:“苦集灭道,是名四圣谛。”见四谛条。
四坚信《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)信佛法僧及戒也。归依已后,具有根力,其信坚固,故谓之坚信。又名四不坏信。
四堕《佛学大辞典》
(名数)淫盗杀妄之四波罗夷罪也。是为退堕佛法海而不得再入僧从之重罪,故云堕。多论一曰:“白四羯磨竟,已得具戒,所以说四依四堕十三僧残者,但为知故说。”有部百一羯磨一曰:“次说四堕落法。(中略)苾刍于此四法中,随一一事。若有犯者,随当犯时便非苾刍,非沙门,非释迦子,失苾刍性,此便堕落断没轮回。”
四堕落法《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见“四堕”条。
四塔《佛学大辞典》
(名数)经律异相六谓天上人中各有四塔。天上之四塔,如忉利天城东照明园中有佛之发塔,城南粗涩园中有佛之爪塔,城西欢喜园中有佛之钵塔,城北尊御园中有佛之牙塔。人中之四塔,如迦毗罗卫国有生处塔,摩竭提国有成道塔,波罗奈国有转法轮塔,拘尸那国有般涅槃塔。法显传曰:“佛泥洹已来,四大塔处,相承不绝。四大塔者:佛生处,得道处,转法轮处,般泥洹处。”
四增盛《佛学大辞典》
(名数)谓至增劫则四种增盛也。一,寿量增盛,由千岁至八万岁。二,有情增盛,由万人至无数量。三,资具增盛,谷物果实等富饶。四,善品增盛,至修十善及诸道品。
四处六会《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四处十六会之略。是大般若经之说会也。见“大般若波罗蜜多经”条附录。
四处十六会《佛学大辞典》
(术语)大般若经之说会也。见“大般若波罗蜜多经”条附录。【四处十六会】(术语)四处者一为王舍城之鹫峰山,二为舍卫国之给孤独园,三为他化自在天宫,四为王舍城竹林精舍之白鹭池。十六会者,第一会有四百卷。说于鹫峰山。第二会自四百一卷至四百七十八卷之七十八卷,说于鹫峰山。与第一会大同,罗什译之摩诃般若,无罗叉之放光般若,竺法护译之光赞般若,同为此会。但品有开合。文稍略,又无常啼法诵之二品。第三会自四百七十九卷至五百三十七卷之五十九卷,又说于鹫峰山。与第二会开合不同,亦无常啼法诵之二品。第四会自五百三十八卷至五百五十五卷之十八卷,亦说于鹫峰山。唯最后随顺品中之文,与前三会不同,苻秦昙摩蜱译之摩诃般若钞经,吴支谦译之大明度无极经,支娄迦谶译之道行,罗什译之小品,宋施护译之佛母出生三法藏般若,法贤译之佛母宝德藏般若。共为此会。第五会自五百五十六卷至五百六十五卷之十卷,亦说于鹫峰山。较第四分,则更略。第六会自五百六十六卷至五百七十三卷之八卷,亦说于鹫峰山。有十七品。与前分全别。月婆首那译之胜天王般若。为此会。第七会五百七十四,五百七十五之两卷,说于给孤独园。谓之曼殊室利分。曼陀仙,僧伽婆罗译之二部文殊般若。为此会。又此会收于大宝积经第四十六会。第八会五百七十六之一卷,亦说于给孤独园。谓之那伽室利分。刘宋翔公译之濡首菩萨无上清净分经。为此会。第九会五百七十七之一卷,亦说于给孤独园。谓之能断金刚分。罗什,菩提留支,真谛译之金刚般若经,玄奘义净译之能断金刚般若。为此会。第十会五百七十八之一卷,说于他化自在天宫,谓之般若理趣分。与密部之理趣经同本,而咒不同。第十一会自五百七十九至五百八十三之五卷,说于给孤独园。谓之布施波罗蜜分。第十二会自五百八十四至五百八十八之五卷,亦说于给孤独园。谓之净戒波罗蜜多分。第十三会五百八十九之一卷,亦说于给孤独园。谓之安忍波罗蜜多分。第十四会五百九十之一卷,亦说于给孤独园。谓之精进波罗蜜多分。第十五会五百九十一及五百九十二之两卷,说于鹫峰山。谓之静虑波罗蜜多分,第十六会自五百九十三至第六百卷之八卷,说于竹林精舍白鹭池之侧。谓之般若波罗蜜多分,其他有小经数部,要之大般若以外现存之诸经,皆在此中。但仁王般若经不摄于十六会。玆将本经之撰述列之如下。大般若经通关法六卷(宋永隆排定),大般若经理趣分述赞三卷(唐沙门基撰),般若纲要十卷(葛彗葛鼎提纲)。
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