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Term Definition
苦苦《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语Duḥkha-duḥkhatā之译。三苦之一。苦众生身心之苦,从饥饿疾病风雨寒热鞭打劳役等苦缘而生之苦也。大乘义章三曰:“从彼苦缘逼而生恼,名为苦苦。刀杖等缘能生内恼,说之为苦。从苦生苦,故曰苦苦。”法界次第中之下曰:“苦受从苦缘生,情觉是苦,即苦苦也。”

又有情之心身,本来是苦,更加刀杖等之苦,故云苦苦。大乘义章三曰:“心性是苦,依彼苦上。加以事恼,苦上加苦,故云苦苦。”止观七上曰:“四大成身,(中略)如箧盛四蛇。痈疮刺箭,常自是苦。有何可乐?加以饥渴寒热鞭打系缚生老病死,是为苦苦。”三藏法数十二曰:“有漏五阴之身,性常逼迫名苦。又与苦受相应,即苦上加苦也。”

苦蕴《佛学大辞典》
(术语)谓人身也。人身自五蕴而成,不免三苦八苦等苦,故云苦蕴。八十华严经二十四曰:“永除苦蕴,永断苦觉。”
苦行《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语Duṣkara-carya又Tapas,又常曰难行苦行,敢为身所难堪之诸种行也。主指佛法以外外道所教之行业。以苦行为出离解脱之道,此思想印度多行之者。观世尊六年苦行之事迹可知。至后世,佛教中之荒行亦云苦行。

又寺内之净人谓之苦行。传灯录(丰干章)曰:“本寺厨中,有二苦行:曰寒山子、拾得。”宋高僧传(常誉传)曰:“乃礼归宗寺禅师,充苦行焉。”

苦行外道《佛学大辞典》
(流派)俱舍论九曰:“如诸离系及婆罗门输婆多,般利伐罗多迦等。异类外道,受持种种露形,拔发,杖乌鹿皮,持髻,涂灰,执三杖,剪须发等无义苦行。”百论上曰:“勒沙婆弟子,诵尼干子经。言五热炙身,拔发等受苦法,是名善法。又有诸师,行自饿法,投渊赴火,自坠高岩,寂默常立,持牛戒等,是名善法。”止观辅行十之一曰:“苦行即长寿天行,五热炙身等。总有六行:一、自饿,二、投渊,三、赴火,四、自坠,五、寂默,六、持鸡犬等戒。”本行集经二十四曰:“或有裸形,或卧棘上,或卧板上。(中略)或卧冢间,或蚁垤内,犹如蛇居。(中略)或复有用沙土烟尘,以涂坌身,正立而住。或不梳洗头首面目,发如螺髻,拳挛而住。或复拔发,或拔髭须。”智度论三十八曰:“诸外道等,信着苦行。若佛不六年苦行,则人不信。言是王子惯乐不能苦行,以是故。佛六年苦行。”
苦行宿缘经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)说佛六年苦行之宿因缘者。摄于佛说兴起行经下。
苦行林《佛学大辞典》
(地名)释尊苦行之地。优楼频螺村也。见“优楼频螺”条。
苦行论师《佛学大辞典》
(流派)二十外道之一。出外道小乘涅槃论。
苦觉《佛学大辞典》
(术语)苦之觉想。八十华严经二十四曰:“永除苦蕴,永断苦觉。”
苦言《佛学大辞典》
(术语)呵他过之语。诫他之语。法华经信解品曰:“如是苦言,汝当勤作。又以软语,若如我子。”
苦谛《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四谛之一。三界生死之果报,毕竟苦患,无有安乐之性,此理决定真实,谓之苦谛。见“苦圣谛”条。
苦轮《佛学大辞典》
(术语)生死之苦果轮转不止,故云轮。胜天王般若经一曰:“众生长夜,流转六道。苦轮不息,皆由贪爱。”仁王经曰:“十善菩萨发大心,长别三界苦轮海。”同良贲疏四曰:“苦轮海者,苦通三界,谓三苦也。依苦乐舍,立为苦故,往返不息,回转如轮。升沈出没,深大如海。”
苦轮海《佛学大辞典》
(术语)略云苦轮。见“苦轮”条。
苦道《佛学大辞典》
(术语)三道之一。道者能通之义。惑业苦互相通,从惑起业,从业感苦,从苦复起惑,故云苦道。即三界生死之果报也。见三藏法数十二。
苦阴《佛学大辞典》
(术语)新译曰蕴。旧译曰阴。构造有情之身心者也。人身有苦,故云苦阴。见“阴”条。释门归敬仪上曰:“形则缚于俗习,苦阴常缠。”
苦阴因事经《佛学大辞典》
(书名)佛说苦阴因事经,一卷,西晋法炬译。即中阿含经中苦阴经下之别译。
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