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Term Definition
灌佛《佛学大辞典》
(行事)又去浴佛。灌浴佛像而拂拭之,其功德广大,经说之,西天每作之。寄归传四曰:“但西国诸寺,灌沐尊仪,每于禺中(正午)之时,授事(执事)便鸣健椎。寺庭张施宝盖,殿侧罗列香瓶,取金银铜石之像,置以铜金木石盘,内令诸妓女奏其音乐,涂以磨香,灌以香水,以净白叠而揩试之,然后安置殿中,布诸华彩,此乃寺众之仪,令羯磨陀那(译授事)作之矣。然于房房之内,自浴尊仪,日日皆为要心无阙,(中略)至于铜像,无问小大,须细灰砖末,揩拭光明。清水灌之,澄华若镜。大者月半月尽合众共为,小者随己所能。每须洗沐,斯则所费虽少,而福利尤多。其浴像之水,举以两指,沥自顶上,斯谓吉祥之水,冀求胜利。(中略)曾见有处。四月八日,或道或俗,持像路边,灌洗随宜。不知揩拭,风飘日曝,未称其仪矣。”依此则西天之俗,灌佛为平常之事,依拂说摩诃刹头经,则特说四月八日佛生日之灌佛,依般泥洹后灌腊经,则说四月八日佛生日与七月十五日夏满日之灌佛。诸宗行佛生日之灌佛,禅宗于十二月八日之佛成道亦行灌佛式。腊八之浴佛,依譬喻经。见腊八条。秘藏记本说密教之沐像法曰:“即观以此本来自性清净水,浴诸佛无垢身。及洗自他众生界百六十心即浴。”有般泥洹后灌腊经、佛说灌洗佛形像经、摩诃刹头经、佛说浴像功德经、浴佛功德经、新集浴像仪轨之经轨。
灌佛会《佛学大辞典》
(行事)又云佛生会。于四月八日行之。
灌佛偈《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)敕修清规佛降诞曰:“维那宣疏毕,举唱浴佛偈云:我今灌沐诸如来,净智庄严功德众。五浊众生令离垢,同证如来净法身。”偈出浴像功德经。日本莹山清规浴佛偈曰:“稽首大圣薄伽梵,天上天下两足尊。我等今以功德水,灌浴如来净法身。”未知出于何典。
灌佛斋《佛学大辞典》
(行事)刘宋孝武帝大明六年四月八日,于内殿设灌佛斋。见佛祖统纪三十六。
灌佛经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)佛说灌洗佛形像经之略名。
灌佛香汤《佛学大辞典》
(物名)浴像功德经曰:“应以牛头旃檀、紫檀、多摩罗香、甘松、芎藭、白檀、郁金、龙脑、沉香、麝香、丁香,如是等妙香。随所得者以为汤水,置净器中。”然禅宗之一法,但用七种之香。象器笺十三曰:“旧说曰浴佛香汤方,沉香(一两),白檀(一两),甘松(半两),丁子(半两),熏陆(半两),芎藭(半两),郁金(一钱三分),此七种盛净布囊投铛内。”
灌室《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)设秘密坛场而行灌顶圣式之处也。
灌洗《佛学大辞典》
(行事)洗浴佛像也。寄归传四曰:“灌洗圣仪,实为通济。”
灌洗佛形像经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)佛说灌洗佛形像经,一卷,西晋法炬译。
灌经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)灌洗佛形像经之略。
灌腊《佛学大辞典》
(行事)灌者即浴佛,腊者夏满之日,每年夏满之日行灌佛之式,谓之灌腊。
灌腊经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)般泥洹后灌腊经之略名。灌者四月八日之灌佛也,腊者七月十五日之盂兰盆也(此日为比丘安居之终日,故云腊)。佛依阿难之问,说灭后于此两日可设斋会者。一卷,西晋竺法护译。
灌顶《佛学大辞典》
(人名)天台章安大师。名灌顶,字法云,章安人。天台之法嗣。玄义文句止观三大部,皆成于师之笔。唐贞观六年八月七日终于国清寺。寿七十二。见续高僧传十九。【灌顶】(术语)梵语Abhiṣecanī,天竺国王即位时,以四大海之水,灌于顶而表祝意。密教效此世法,于其人加行成就,嗣阿阇梨位时,设坛而行灌顶之式。显教虽说等觉菩萨于色界之魔醯首罗天由十方诸佛受灌顶而成佛之事,而无说于学人实行之之法则者。大日经疏八曰:“如西方世人,受灌顶法时,取四大海水及境内一切河水,具置宝药谷等,作境内地图,令此童子踞师子座,以种种珍宝庄严,所统眷属,随其大小,列次陪奉。韦陀梵志师,坐于象宝,以临其后,持此宝水,以注象牙,令堕其顶上。而后唱令,以告众人。又叹说古先哲王治人济代之法,如是随顺行者,当得寿命长远,本枝繁盛,克绍转轮之业。若不作如是事者,则当自退其位,殒身绝嗣。如是一一而教诲之。今此法王子灌顶,则不如是。陈列密严佛土法界大图,坐于妙法莲华自在神通师子之座,以本性清净智慧慈悲水具含万德,而灌其心。尔时诸菩萨众,下至八部众生,莫不欢喜赞喜而生敬仰。时阿阇梨,以法王遗训而教训之:从此以后,当得生如来家,定绍佛位。若不如是对明,则不知正法尊法也。”同十五曰:“譬如世间刹利之种,谓欲绍其继嗣令王种不断故,为其嫡子,而作灌顶。取四大海水,以四宝瓶盛之。种种严饰,又严饰子身。众物咸备,又饰大象,于象背上持瓶。令太子坐于坛中,所统毕集,于象牙上,水令流注太子之顶。灌此水已,本声三唱:汝等当知,太子已受位竟。自今以后,所有教敕,皆当奉行。今如来法王,亦复如是。为令佛种不断故,以甘露法水,而灌佛子之顶,令佛种永不断故,为顺世法故。有此方便印持之法,从此以后,一切圣众,咸所敬仰。亦知此人毕竟不退于无上菩提,定绍法王之位。诸有所作,真言身印,瑜伽等业,皆不敢违越也。”此就行人之初位而释之。秘藏记末曰:“灌顶义,灌者诸佛大悲,灌顶者上之义。菩萨初地乃至等觉,究竟迁佛果时,诸佛以大悲水灌顶,即自行圆满,得证佛果,是顶义也。”此就后位而释之。表制集一曰:“灌谓灌持,明诸佛护念,顶谓头顶,表大行尊高。”秘藏记钞七曰:“以水灌顶,是五种中甘露灌顶也。自余四种无洒水义,虽无洒水名灌顶,其故灌者大悲护念义。顶者佛果最顶义,诸佛护念,令至佛顶住。皆名灌顶也。”
灌顶三摩耶《佛学大辞典》
(术语)三昧耶者要誓之义。行灌顶时宜发坚固之要誓,是云三昧耶。因而就作法称为灌顶,就受者之心谓之三昧耶,其体一也。大日经秘密曼陀罗品说三种之灌顶与五种之三昧耶,三种之灌顶者示作法之差别,五种之三昧耶者辨灌顶之浅深。见大日经疏十五。
灌顶住《佛学大辞典》
(术语)十住之一。为十住位之最顶,故名。
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