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Term Definition
牛《佛学大辞典》
(譬喻)譬佛于牛曰牛王。见“牛王”条。
牛头《佛学大辞典》
(异类)地狱之鬼卒,或为牛头之形,或为马头之形。楞严经八曰:“亡者神识见大铁城,火蛇火狗,虎狼狮子,牛头狱卒,马头罗刹,手执跄矟,驱入城门。”五句辛经曰:“狱卒名阿傍,牛头人手,两脚牛蹄,力壮排山。”智度论十六曰:“见合会大地狱中,恶罗刹狱卒作种种形,牛马猪羊雕鹫鹑鸟,作此种种诸鸟兽头而来,吞啖咬啮[齿*查]掣罪人。”冥祥记曰:“宋何澹之得病,见一鬼,形甚长壮,牛头人身,手执铁叉。”沙门慧义曰:“此牛头阿旁也。”
牛头天王《佛学大辞典》
(天名)祇园精舍之守护神。谓为乐师如来之化身。
牛头山《佛学大辞典》
(地名)梵名瞿室[饥-几+夌]伽Gosriṅga,又译牛角山。在新疆和阗市南十三里。西域记第十二所谓:“王城西南二十余里,有瞿室[饥-几+夌]伽山,唐言牛角。山峰两起,岩隒四绝。于崖谷间建一伽蓝,其中佛像,时放光明。昔如来曾至此处,为诸天人略说法要,悬记此地当建国土,敬崇遗法,遵习大乘”是也。大集经第四十五所谓:“复以阎浮提于阗国中水河岸上牛头山边近河岸侧瞿摩娑罗香大圣人支提住处,付属吃利呵婆达多龙王,令守护供养。(中略)如来今以于阗国牛角峰山瞿摩娑罗干陀牟尼大支提处付嘱我。”与之相合。旧华严经菩萨住处品有曰:“边夷国土,有菩萨住处,名牛头山。”新华严经第三十二有曰:“疏勒国有一住处,名牛头山。”疏勒于阗,地虽不同,然境域相近,恐即一山也。

又在江苏江宁南三十里。双峰对峙,宛如牛角,故名。又称双峰,天阙,破头山。后世呼为牛首山。相传梁武帝曾于此建精舍,古来高僧驻锡者不少。华严探玄记第十五所谓:“润州江南有牛头山,彼中现有佛窟寺,又有四辟支佛影,时时出现”者。即是也。唐贞观中,法融禅师于(幽栖寺)北岩石室,闻四祖道信之教,后在此地振宗风。为所谓牛头禅之一派。日本传教大师传入日本之禅即其法流也。又见景德传灯录四,祖庭事苑一,五灯会元四等。

牛头山法《佛学大辞典》
(流派)牛头山法融禅师之一派。参照“牛头禅”条。
牛头栴檀《佛学大辞典》
(植物)又称赤栴檀。栴檀为香树名,出自牛头山,故曰牛头栴檀。名义集三曰:“正法会经云:此洲有山名曰高山,高山之峰多有牛头栴檀,以此山峰状如牛头于此峰中生栴檀树,故名牛头。华严云:摩罗耶山出栴檀香名曰牛头,若以涂身,设入火坑火不能烧。大论云:除摩梨山无出栴檀香。”智度论十八曰:“除摩黎山一切无出栴檀木。”西域记十曰:“国南海滨有秣刺耶山,崇崖峻岭洞谷深涧,其中则有白檀树。栴檀你婆树,树类白檀,不可以别。唯于盛夏登高远瞻,其有大蛇萦者,于是知之。犹其木性凉冷,故蛇盘也。既见已射箭为记,冬蛰之后,方乃采伐。”观佛三昧海经一谓:“牛头栴檀,生伊兰丛中,牙茎枝叶,如阎浮提竹笋。仲秋月满,卒从地生,成栴檀树。众人皆闻牛头栴檀上妙之香。”梵Gośīrṣaka-candana。
牛头禅《佛学大辞典》
(流派)以牛头山法融为祖之禅派。又称牛头宗。四祖道信下旁出之禅宗也。初,法融入金陵牛头山幽栖寺北岩石室枯坐,有百鸟衔花之祥。唐贞观中,四祖道信闻之,往寻访,因附法。自是法席大盛。法融下,智岩,慧方,法持,智威,慧忠,六世相付。慧忠下,有维则。则下有云居智。又智威之门有玄素。素下有道钦。钦开径山,受代宗之信仰,赐号国一。钦门有鸟窠道林,与白居易问答有名。牛头门风,虽一时振于唐代,而其末遂不盛。宗密之中华传心地禅门师资承袭图曰:“牛头宗之意,体诸法如梦。本来无事,心境本寂,非今始空,迷之为有,即见荣枯贵贱等事。事迹既有相连相顺,故生爱恶等情。情生则为诸苦所系。梦作梦受,何损何益。虽有此能了之智,亦如梦心。乃至设有一法过于涅槃者,亦如梦如幻。既达本来无事,理宜丧己忘情。情忘即绝苦因,方度一切苦厄,此以忘情为修也。”即此可以见其宗风。南宗诸师,颇诋击牛头一派。彼黄檗希运:“如四祖下牛头融大师,横说竖说,犹未知向上关捩子。有此眼脑,方辨得邪正宗党。”即其一例。又见传灯录四及九,祖庭事苑一等。
牛头香《佛学大辞典》
(植物)牛头栴檀也。详见“牛头栴檀”条。
牛山《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)牛头山之略。
牛戒《佛学大辞典》
(术语)戒禁取见之一种。天竺之外道有执牛行以为生天之因者。百论疏上中曰:“持牛戒者,如俱舍论说,合眼低头食草以为牛法,彼见牛死得生天上,即寻此牛八万劫来犹受牛身。不达尔前有于天因,谓牛死得生天,是故相与持于牛戒。成论云:持牛戒,若成则堕牛中,如其不成则入地狱。然外道苦行世人信之。”智度论二十二曰:“外道戒者:牛戒,鹿戒,狗戒,罗刹鬼戒,哑戒,聋戒。”
牛檀《佛学大辞典》
(植物)牛头栴檀之略。
牛毛尘《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)七倍于羊毛尘者。住于牛毛尖之微尘也。见俱舍论十二。梵Gorajas。
牛狗外道《佛学大辞典》
(流派)六种苦行外道之一。持牛戒或狗戒之外道类也。见涅槃经十六。
牛王《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)牛中胜者。胜鬘经曰:“如牛王,形色无比胜一切牛。”以譬佛菩萨。涅槃经十八叹佛曰:“人中象王,人中牛王,人中龙王。”无量寿经下叹菩萨之德。曰:“犹如牛王,无能胜故。”大毗婆沙一百七十七释迦菩萨赞底沙佛之偈曰:“丈夫牛王大沙门,寻地山林遍无等。”
牛王尊者《佛学大辞典》
(人名)佛弟子憍梵波提之译名。无量寿经上曰:“尊者牛王。”余经译为牛呞、牛迹、牛相等。见“憍梵波提”条。
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