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Term Definition
经《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语修多罗Sūtra之译意。又曰契经,或曰经本。(一)三藏之一。对于律及论而言。即佛所说之教法也。涅槃经第十五所谓:“从如是我闻乃至欢喜奉行,如是一切,名修多罗。”大毗婆沙论第一等所谓律及论,诠戒及慧,而经则诠定者,即是也。论其字义,瑜伽师地论第二十五,谓:“能贯穿缝缀种种能引义利能引梵行真善妙义,是名契经。”同第八十一,谓:“契经者,谓贯穿义。”显扬圣教论亦同之。是以贯穿之义释经也。然佛地经论,谓:“能贯能摄,故名为经,以佛圣教贯穿摄持所应说义所化生故。”又法苑义林章第二本,谓:“虽以贯穿之义释契经,然以教贯义,以教摄生,名之为经。犹如綖之贯花,经之持纬。西域呼汲索,缝衣之綖,席经圣教等,皆名素呾缆。众生由教摄而不散流于恶趣,义理由教贯而不散失隐没,是故名圣教为契经。”华严疏第一释修多罗,谓:“古译为契经,契谓契理契机,经谓贯穿摄化,即契理合机之经,依主受名。复云:正翻名线,线能贯华,经能持纬,此方不贵线称,故存于经。”是等皆以贯穿摄持之二义释经也。若依杂阿毗昙心论第八,则修多罗有五义,其文曰:“修多罗者有五义:一曰出生,出生诸义故。二曰泉涌,义味无尽故。三曰显示,显示诸义故。四曰绳墨,辨诸邪正故。五曰结鬘,贯穿诸法故。如是五义,是修多罗义。”法华玄义第八上,广就修多罗,出有翻无翻之两说,无翻之中,详说今之五义,谓梵语多含,故不可翻,有翻之中,出经,契,法本,线,善语教之五译。其间谓经为经由之义,以其由于圣人之心口,故云。出教由行由理由之三释。又谓经为经纬之义。如世绢经,以纬织之,而龙凤文章成。佛以世界悉檀说经,菩萨以世界纬织,经纬合,故圣贤文章成。又依净影之无量寿经义疏卷上,谓:“经者,外国名修多罗,此翻名綖。圣人言说,能贯诸法,如綖之贯华,故名为綖。而言经者,綖能贯华,经能持,其用相似,故名为经。若依俗训,经者常也。人别古今,教仪常楷,故名为常。经之与常,何相关顾,将常释经。释言经者,是经历义。凡是一法,经古历今,恒有不断。是其常义,故得名常。”是并释经之字训也。盖梵音修多罗,为贯穿摄持之义,虽可译为綖或线。然以古来支那于圣人之说称为经,故借之而用经之名也。窃思佛典中称为经者甚多,其分类不一。普通分为大乘经小乘经二种,大乘经之中,分般若部,宝积部,大集部,华严部,涅槃部。或为华严部,方等部,般若部,法华部,涅槃部,秘密部。小乘经之中,或分为阿含部小乘部二种。又就翻译而区别为重译经单译经,宋代已后之译经,别有续入藏目录。依缘山三大藏总目录,大乘经,并般若,宝积,大集,华严,涅槃,重译,单译。宋藏五百二十八部,二千一百七十五卷。元藏五百二十八部,二千一百七十四卷。丽藏五百二十一部,二千一百六十四卷。小乘经,阿含单译,总计宋元两藏各二百四十二部,六百二十一卷。丽藏二百四十部,六百十四卷。依缩版大藏经目录,则大乘经华严方等般若法华涅槃五部,合计四百五十部,二千二百九十一卷。小乘经三百二十一部,七百七十八卷。别有秘密部五百七十部,九百三十一卷。但秘密部中,含不属于经者。此外有阙经,伪经,疑经及未度之经。又有非佛所说,而亦称为经者。如法句经,坐禅三昧经,修行道地经,杂譬喻经,百喻经等是也。通彼经律论三藏,而称为大藏经或一切经者。不过以经为其中之根本,部帙亦随而多故据,胜立名耳。(二)十二部经之一。对于祇夜,优婆提舍等而言。经中直说之长行也。成实论第一十二部经品所谓:“修多罗者直说语言。”瑜伽师地论第八十一所谓:“契经者长行直说。”大乘阿毗达磨杂集论第十一所谓:“契经者,谓以长行缀缉,略说所应说义”者是也。是经中长行,即为散文,而不用偈颂,又称不属于授记,本生,论议等之部分也。又出于大智度论第三十三,往生论注卷上,大乘义章第一,法华义记第一,法华玄赞第一,华严探玄记第一,善导之观经疏第一等。
经体《佛学大辞典》
(术语)经之体也。谓一经所诠之主质。天台观经疏卷上,谓诸法实相为经之体,余皆魔事,如诸星环北辰,万流宗于东海也。天台以前之诸师,不别经宗与经体。天台以体为一经之主,谓宗如辅臣。小乘经以三法印为体。净土诸师以念佛为体。
经体三尘《佛学大辞典》
(名数)经体有三:一为声。于佛在世时闻金口之音声而得道,是以声尘为经。二为色。于佛灭后,由经卷纸墨而传持之,是以色尘为经。三为法。内心思惟自法,而契于理。是不由他教,不由纸墨,唯以法尘为经。耳识利者依于声。眼识利者依于色。意识利者依于法。此土之人,此三识利。余三识钝。鼻嗅纸墨亦无所知,身触经卷亦不能解。舌啖文字亦宁辨是非耶?是故唯以三尘为经体。见玄义八上。
经供养《佛学大辞典》
(行事)不限何经,书写之,为作佛事。谓为经供养。供养经之义。经者属于三宝中之法宝。供养经者,即供养法宝也。法华经分别功德品曰:“如来灭后,若有受持读诵,为他人说。若自书,若教人书供养经卷,不须复起塔寺,及造僧坊供养众僧。”随求陀罗尼经记书随求陀罗尼,系于病比丘之颈,大减病苦,死后虽坠地狱,亦依咒力而消灭罪障,生于天而成随求即得天子。
经典《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)佛说之。阿难结集之。初传之于口。后书之于贝叶。其文句并书籍。谓为经典。无量寿经上曰:“菩萨经典,究畅要妙。”法华经序品曰:“圣主师子,演说经典,微妙第一。”
经单《佛学大辞典》
(物名)记经名之纸标。禅家每年启建正月祝道场之前一日贴于大殿前者。敕修百丈清规第一曰:“启建元先一日,堂司备榜,张于三门之右及上殿经单,俱用黄纸书之。”
经卷《佛学大辞典》
(术语)古经皆为卷本,故曰经卷。方册之经,成于明朝。法华经法师品曰:“于此经卷,敬视如佛,种种供养。”
经呗《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)歌咏经文之声。即梵呗也。慧琳音义六十五曰:“经呗,僧尼法事梵呗声也。”
经堂《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)入一切经之殿堂。与经藏同。
经塔《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)纳经文陀罗尼而供养之塔也。西天之法,凡造塔及像,则必纳舍利或经颂。其纳经颂者,即经塔也。寄归传四曰:“凡造形像及以制底。(中略)中安二种舍利:一谓大师身骨,二谓缘起法颂。”密教劝置陀罗尼。宝箧印陀罗尼经曰:“安置此陀罗尼于塔像中者,我等十方诸佛,随其方处恒常随逐。”尊胜陀罗尼经,佛教天帝谓此供养者为摩诃萨埵。法华经法师品亦教于经卷所住之处,起七宝之塔而严节之。

又于塔书经文者。书史会要六曰:“释法晖,政和二年天宁节,以细书经塔来上,作正书,如半芝麻粒,写佛书十部。”

经头《佛学大辞典》
(职位)禅家掌经卷图书之僧也。

又禅院为补修一切经劝化街坊之僧曰经头。

经夹《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)又云梵夹。刻经文于贝多罗,夹以厚板,以绳结之也。其状类箱,故曰梵筴。愚案夹为筴之误同策。
经宗《佛学大辞典》
(术语)依经而开之宗旨曰经宗。依论而开之宗曰论宗。如华严天台是经宗。如成实三论是论宗。
经家《佛学大辞典》
(人名)结集经典之人,即指阿难。三德指归一曰:“经家者,即阿难,是结集经家也。”
经师《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)读经之法师。毗奈耶杂事四曰:“善和苾刍,作吟讽声。赞诵经法。(中略)我欲亲往奉彼经师。”同十三曰:“经师律师论法师禅师,不以同类令聚一处。”梁高僧传有经师之一科。
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