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Term Definition
袈裟《佛学大辞典》
(衣服)具名迦沙曳Kaṣāya,译曰不正,坏,浊,染等。又与加沙野之语同。译曰赤色。比丘之法衣有大中小三件,避青黄赤白黑之五正色,而用他之杂色,故从色而云袈裟。其形为长方形,故从形而云敷具,卧具等。其相割截小片,缀合如田畔,故从相而云割截衣,又云田相衣。其他有道服,法衣,忍辱铠,解脱幢相等种种之德名。大中小三枚之别名,其小者曰安陀会,又云五条,其中者曰郁多罗僧,又云七条,其大者云僧伽梨,又云九条大衣等。天竺于此三枚袈裟外无所谓衣者。支那日本气候寒故于里着衣,而挂于表也。天竺于五条上重着七条或大衣,或于五条七条上重着大衣,此方则不必重着,里有衣也。其色有三如法色,其中通常天竺用干陀,支那用木兰色,日本用香染。即赤而带黑者。唐武后赐僧法朗等紫袈裟。玄应音义十五曰:“袈裟,上举佉切,下所加切。韵集,音加沙,字本从毛,作毠裟二形。葛洪后作字苑,始改从衣,案外国通称袈裟,此云不正色也。诸草木中,若皮若叶若花等,不成五味,难以为食者,则名迦沙。此物染衣,其色浊赤,故梵本五浊之浊亦名迦沙。天竺比丘多用此色,或言缁衣者,当是初译之时,见其色浊因以名也。又案如幻三昧经云:晋言无垢衣,又义云离尘服,或云痟瘦衣,或称莲花服,或言间色衣,皆从义立名耳。真谛三藏云:袈裟此云赤血色衣,言外国虽有五部不同,并皆赤色,言青黑木兰者,但点之异耳。”行事钞下一曰:“增一云:如来所著衣名曰袈裟,所食者名为法食,此袈裟衣者,从色得名。下文染作袈裟色,味有袈裟味。若据此土所翻,通名为卧具。四分云:应以刀截成,沙门衣不为怨贼劫,应作安陀会,衬体着。郁多罗僧,僧伽梨,入聚落着。而此三名,诸部无正翻,今以义译。慧上菩萨经,五条名中着衣,七条名上衣,大衣名众聚时衣。(中略)若就条数,便云十九十七乃至九条七条五条等。律中无五七九名,但云安陀会乃至僧伽梨,人名五七九条也。”寄归传一曰:“袈裟乃是梵言,即是干陀之色。元来不干东语,何劳下底置衣?若,依律文典语,三衣并名支伐罗也。”同二曰:“一僧伽胝,二嗢呾啰僧伽,三安呾婆裟,此之三衣,皆名支伐罗。北方诸国。多名法衣为袈裟。乃是赤色义。非律文典语。”又曰:“凡出家衣服,皆可染作干陀。或为地黄黄屑,或复荆蘗黄等,此皆可以赤土赤石研汁和之。量色浅深,要而省事。”慧苑音义上曰:“袈裟,具正云迦逻沙曳。此云染色衣,西域俗人,皆着白色衣也。”
袈裟五德《佛学大辞典》
(名数)悲华经八曰:释迦如来,昔于宝藏佛前,誓己成佛时袈裟有五德:一或犯重邪见之四众,以一念敬心尊重袈裟,必于三乘受记。二天龙人鬼若恭敬袈裟少分即得三乘不退。三若鬼神诸人得袈裟少分乃至四寸,则饮食充食。四众生共违反,念袈裟便生悲心。五若在兵陈持此少分,恭敬尊重,常得胜他。又见行事钞下一,释氏要览上。
袈裟十二名《佛学大辞典》
(名数)释氏要览上曰:“大集经云:袈裟名离染服,贤愚经云:出世服,如幻三昧经云:无垢衣,又名忍辱铠,又名莲华衣,谓不为欲泥染故。又名幢相。谓不为邪所倾故。又名田相衣。谓不为见者生恶故。又名痟瘦衣。谓着此衣烦恼痟瘦故,又名离染服,去秽衣,又名振起。”又六物图曰:“一、袈裟。二、道服。修佛道者之衣也。三、出世服。出离世俗者之衣也。四、法衣。如法之衣也。五、离尘服。远离六尘者之衣也。六、痟瘦服。服有损消烦恼之德者。七、莲华服。离染着如莲华者。八、间色服。不正之间色避五正色也。九、慈悲服。行慈悲者之服也。十、福田衣。袈裟之条相,等于世之田畴,且其德为世之福田而受供养也。十一、卧具(出四分律),以相似被褥也。十二、敷具(出十诵律),如言卧具也。”
袈裟十利《佛学大辞典》
(名数)心地观经五列举十利:一、覆身离羞耻而具惭愧。二、离寒热蚊虫。三、示沙门之相,见者欢喜,离邪心。四、是人天宝幢相,生梵天之福。五、着之时,生宝塔想,灭诸罪。六、坏色,生不贪欲。七、袈裟是佛净衣,永断烦恼而作良田。八、消罪而生十善。九、如良田,能增长菩提之芽。十、如甲胄,烦恼之毒箭不能害。是故三世诸佛共服之。
袈裟变白《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)摩耶经下曰:“千三百岁已,袈裟变白,不受染色。”末世法灭之相,沙门之袈裟与在家之白衣同。
袈裟味《佛学大辞典》
(饮食)五正色之杂色曰袈裟色,六味之杂味云袈裟味。大疏六曰:“如云袈裟味者,即是染作袈裟色也。”行事钞下一之一曰:“染作袈裟色,味有袈裟味。”同资持记曰:“袈裟味者,此示非正食名。”戒疏下一之一曰:“如六味中有袈裟味,可是食也。”
袈裟着法《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)寄归传云:取衣作三褶,其肩头叠处,安其方帖以安衣[巾*句],长可两指,结作同心,向外牵出,十字交系,便成两[巾*句]。其胸前叠处缘边安纽,以纽内于[巾*句],以衣右角宽搭左肩,垂之背后。此古法也。至于中古,袈裟之着法,甚失古法,其滥觞殆起于宋之灵芝律师,彼着六物图,引感通传:“以衣角绕于左角。”误绕为达,遂于衣之右角施钩,仅达胸前,与纽合结,于是搭于左肩及绕于左臂之正仪全失。大日经义释明如来之钵印云:左手持衣两角,其法取袈裟近手之尖角及搭肩之角,绕肘回入手中使二角如双耳,仍二手相重如承钵之形,又出入聚落或私营事务,许反被袈裟。
袈裟衣《佛学大辞典》
(衣服)天竺本制,三种之袈裟即为衣,来于支那日本,则袈裟之外,有一种称为衣之僧服也。见“衣”条。
袈裟袋《佛学大辞典》
(物名)容袈裟之袋也,禅僧等他行时,盛三衣及常用之经卷、度牒、数珠、引磬、戒刀等诸具,悬于颈垂于胸者。
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