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Term Definition
译《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)以本国言文与外国言文互译也。亦作翻译。隋书经籍志曰:“汉桓帝时,有安息国沙门安静,齎经至洛,翻译最为通解。”说文曰:“译,传译四夷之言者,从言睾声。”李善注东京赋引作传四夷之语者。后汉书和帝纪注引亦作语。尚书大传曰:“越裳以三象重九译而献白雉曰:道路悠远,山川岨深,恐使之不通,故重九译而朝。注云欲其转相晓也。”吕氏春秋慎势篇曰:“不用象译狄鞮,方三千里。注云周礼象胥古掌蛮夷闽越戎狄之国,使传通其言也。东方曰羁,南方曰象,西方曰狄鞮,北方曰译。”大戴礼保傅篇曰:“胡越之人,生而同声,嗜欲不异,及其长而成俗也,累数译而不能相通。”说苑善说篇曰:“鄂君子皙曰:吾不知越歌,子试为我楚说之,于是乃召越译,乃楚说之。”汉书百官表,典客属官,有行人译官丞令。汉黄支国,自武帝以来,皆献见,有译长属黄门。后汉书马融传曰:“南徼因九译而致贡,朔狄属象胥而来同。”方言曰:“译,传也,译见也。注云:传宣语,即相见。”急就篇曰:“旃裘[革*索][革*睾]蛮夷民,去俗归义来附亲,译导赞拜称妾臣。颜注,译,传言也。”周礼大行人,属象胥谕言,语协辞命,郑司农云:象胥,译官也。又象胥掌蛮夷闽貉戎狄之国,使掌传王之言:而谕说焉,以和亲之。若以时入宾,则协其礼,与其辞,言传之。郑注叙官云:通夷狄之言者曰象。此类之本名,东方曰寄,南方曰象,西方曰狄鞮,北方曰译。案国语,舌人委而礼之。舌人即象胥。汉书平帝纪,越裳氏重译。颜注,译谓传言也。道路绝远,风俗殊隔,故累译而后乃通。又佞幸传,单于怪贤年少,以问译。颜注,译传语之人也。余详“翻译”条。
译主《佛学大辞典》
(职位)见“译经院”条。
译师《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)翻译经论之法师也。
译经院《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)翻译梵本之道场也。佛祖统纪四十三曰:“天息灾述译经仪式,于东堂面西粉布圣坛(作坛以粉饰之事在藏经),开四门,各以一梵僧主之,持秘密咒七日夜。又设木坛布圣贤名字轮(坛形正圆,层列佛大士天神名佐,环绕其上,如车轮之状),目曰大法曼拏罗(此云大会)。请圣贤阿伽沐浴(阿伽此云器,凡供养之器,皆称曰阿伽,今言阿伽,乃是沐浴器),设香华灯水殽果之供。礼拜绕旋,祈请冥佑,以殄魔障。第一译主,正坐面外,宣传梵文。第二证义,坐其左,与译主评量梵文。第三证文,坐其右,听译主高读梵文,以验差误。第四书字梵学僧,审听梵文,书成华字,犹是梵音(初为纥哩第野,为素怛览)。第五笔受,翻梵音成华音。(纥哩第野再翻为心,素怛览翻为经)。第六缀文,回缀文字使成句义(如笔受云照见五蕴彼自性空见此,今云照见五蕴皆空,大率梵音多先能后所,如念佛为佛念,打钟为钟打,故须回缀字句,以顺此土之文)。第七参译,参考两土文字使无误。第八刊定,刊削冗长定取句义(如无无明无明,剩两字,如上正遍知,上阙一无字)。第九润文,官于僧众南向设位。参详润色(如心经度一切苦厄一句,元无梵本,又是故空中一句,是故两字,元无梵本)。僧众日日沐浴,三衣坐具,威仪整肃,所须受用,悉从官给。天息灾言:译文有与御名庙讳同者,前代皆不避。若变文回避,虑妨经旨。今欲依国学九经但阙点画,诏答:佛经用字宜从正文,庙讳御名不须回避。”山堂考索曰:“太宗崇尚释教,置院于太平兴国寺,后改为传法院,车驾亦尝临幸。得西域僧法天及天息灾施获等,取所献梵书翻译焉。天息灾等并赐紫袍师号,又命文臣润色其文。是岁天息灾等献所译经文一卷,诏入藏刻板流行。自是尽取禁中梵夹,俾之翻译,每诞节即献经焉。天息灾等皆至朝散大夫光禄寺鸿胪卿以卒。自是译经之盛,后世无比。”
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