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Term Definition
食《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语阿贺罗āhāra,总谓增益身心者。俱舍论十曰:“毗婆沙说,食于二时能为食事,俱得名食。一初食时能除饥渴,二消化已资根及大。”分见“二食”条,四食条,五种净食条。余见以下附录。
食前《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵云布罗缚贺拏Probhakta,谓正午之时食以前也。大日经疏四曰:“食前可作息灾。”行事钞中三之三曰:“四分云:食前者,明相出至食时。”
食前密语《佛学大辞典》
(仪式)唱于食前之僧跋语也。见“僧跋”条。
食厌想《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又谓之食不净想。十想之一。
食后《佛学大辞典》
(术语)律,自明相现至食时谓之朝食前,自朝食至日中,谓之食后。见行事钞中三之三。
食后漱口《佛学大辞典》
(仪式)释氏要览上曰:“百一羯磨,佛言:不可礼有染苾刍,有染苾刍亦不可礼他,违者得越法罪。优婆离白佛言:何名有染?佛言染有二种:一不净染,二饮食染。且言饮食染,若食啖而未漱口,虽设漱刷,尚余津腻,是名有染。”
食四分《佛学大辞典》
(仪式)凡有饭四分之:一、供养本尊。二、行者自分。三、同学者来食。四、济饥贫。若待同学不来,行者亦可自食。见不思议疏下。
食堂《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)又云斋堂。象器笺二曰:“禅林僧堂本食堂也,食堂即斋堂也。”释氏要览曰:“毗奈耶云:给孤长者造寺,复作食,若不彩画便不端严,即白佛。佛曰:随意。未知何物画?佛言:(中略)食堂画持饼药叉。”祇园图经曰:“最巷北大院名僧食所,自开三门。中门北有大食堂,堂前列树,方维相对,交阴相交。渠流灌注甚可观关,凡僧食者多止此。”
食堂安文殊像《佛学大辞典》
(仪式)印度之法,食堂安频头卢尊者像为上座,于此供膳。不空三藏奏请于朝,使天下食堂中置文殊菩萨为上座。
食堂安置宾头卢《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)禅林僧堂中央所安置之像,称为圣僧。每日设食供之。其像有文殊,有憍陈如,有空生,而无一准,但多以宾头卢为圣僧。此自秦之道安为始,正安置形像,由于宋末之法愿法镜等云。释氏要览下曰:“传云:中国僧寺立鬼庙,次立伽蓝神庙,次立宾头卢庙,即今堂中圣僧也。始因道安法师梦一胡僧头白眉长,语安云:可时设食。后十诵律至,慧远方知和尚所梦即宾头卢也。于是立座饭之,寺寺成则。法苑云:圣僧元无形像,至宋泰初末,正胜寺僧法愿、正喜寺僧法镜等,始图形像矣。今堂中圣僧多云憍陈如非也,缘经律不令为立庙故,不赴四天供故。又安法师梦是宾头卢故。”高僧五道安传曰:“安常注诸经,恐不合理。乃誓曰:若所说不甚远理,愿见瑞相。乃梦见梵道人头白眉毛长,语安曰:君所注经殊合道理,我不得入泥洹,住在西域,当相助弘通,可时时设食。后十诵律至,远公乃知和尚所梦宾头卢也。于是立座饭之,处处成则。”
食戒《佛学大辞典》
(术语)关于食事戒法也。苏悉地经曰:“一日一食,不得再食。不应断食,于食有疑不可食。”是瑜伽行者之食戒也。
食施获五福报经《佛学大辞典》
(经名)一卷,后汉安世高译。又名施色力经。增一阿含经善聚品之别出也。
食时《佛学大辞典》
(术语)正食之时,即日午时也。三世诸佛之法,过中一发,已不得食。阿弥陀经曰:“其国众生,常以清旦各以衣祴盛众妙华,供养他方十万亿佛。即以食时还到本国,饭食经行。”沙弥十戒仪则经曰:“若受斋食时不得过中午,日出至午前可许受斋食。”
食时五观《佛学大辞典》
(名数)行事钞下二曰:“今故约食时立观以开心道,略作五门,明了论如此分之:初计功多少量他来处,二自忖己身德行,三防心离过,四正事良药,五为成业道。”资持记下二之三曰:“境虽有五,总束为三:初即观食,二是观身,三并观心,从疏至亲观法次第。”
食时咒愿《佛学大辞典》
(术语)愿施食之咒文也。盂兰盆经曰:“时佛敕十方众僧,皆先为施主家咒愿,愿七世父母,(中略)然后受食。”资持记下三之三曰:“咒愿即为施主求愿也。”禅苑清规赴粥饭曰:“粥云:粥有十利(见“粥”条),饶益行人,果报升天,究竟常乐。又云:粥是大良药,能除饥渴消,施受获清凉,共成无上道。斋云:三德六味,施佛及僧。法界人天,普同供养。饡饭云:施者受者,俱获五常,色力命安,获无碍辩。已上并引声高喝也。”南禅规式曰:“僧堂斋粥咒愿,第一座唱之,若阙则书记或藏主代之。”义净南海寄归传第九于受斋轨则中详说之。
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