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Term Definition
灌顶《佛学大辞典》
(人名)天台章安大师。名灌顶,字法云,章安人。天台之法嗣。玄义文句止观三大部,皆成于师之笔。唐贞观六年八月七日终于国清寺。寿七十二。见续高僧传十九。【灌顶】(术语)梵语Abhiṣecanī,天竺国王即位时,以四大海之水,灌于顶而表祝意。密教效此世法,于其人加行成就,嗣阿阇梨位时,设坛而行灌顶之式。显教虽说等觉菩萨于色界之魔醯首罗天由十方诸佛受灌顶而成佛之事,而无说于学人实行之之法则者。大日经疏八曰:“如西方世人,受灌顶法时,取四大海水及境内一切河水,具置宝药谷等,作境内地图,令此童子踞师子座,以种种珍宝庄严,所统眷属,随其大小,列次陪奉。韦陀梵志师,坐于象宝,以临其后,持此宝水,以注象牙,令堕其顶上。而后唱令,以告众人。又叹说古先哲王治人济代之法,如是随顺行者,当得寿命长远,本枝繁盛,克绍转轮之业。若不作如是事者,则当自退其位,殒身绝嗣。如是一一而教诲之。今此法王子灌顶,则不如是。陈列密严佛土法界大图,坐于妙法莲华自在神通师子之座,以本性清净智慧慈悲水具含万德,而灌其心。尔时诸菩萨众,下至八部众生,莫不欢喜赞喜而生敬仰。时阿阇梨,以法王遗训而教训之:从此以后,当得生如来家,定绍佛位。若不如是对明,则不知正法尊法也。”同十五曰:“譬如世间刹利之种,谓欲绍其继嗣令王种不断故,为其嫡子,而作灌顶。取四大海水,以四宝瓶盛之。种种严饰,又严饰子身。众物咸备,又饰大象,于象背上持瓶。令太子坐于坛中,所统毕集,于象牙上,水令流注太子之顶。灌此水已,本声三唱:汝等当知,太子已受位竟。自今以后,所有教敕,皆当奉行。今如来法王,亦复如是。为令佛种不断故,以甘露法水,而灌佛子之顶,令佛种永不断故,为顺世法故。有此方便印持之法,从此以后,一切圣众,咸所敬仰。亦知此人毕竟不退于无上菩提,定绍法王之位。诸有所作,真言身印,瑜伽等业,皆不敢违越也。”此就行人之初位而释之。秘藏记末曰:“灌顶义,灌者诸佛大悲,灌顶者上之义。菩萨初地乃至等觉,究竟迁佛果时,诸佛以大悲水灌顶,即自行圆满,得证佛果,是顶义也。”此就后位而释之。表制集一曰:“灌谓灌持,明诸佛护念,顶谓头顶,表大行尊高。”秘藏记钞七曰:“以水灌顶,是五种中甘露灌顶也。自余四种无洒水义,虽无洒水名灌顶,其故灌者大悲护念义。顶者佛果最顶义,诸佛护念,令至佛顶住。皆名灌顶也。”
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