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Term Definition
和尚《佛学大辞典》
(术语)Upādhyāya,又曰和上。律家用上字其余多用尚字。本为印度之俗语,呼吾师云乌社,至于阗国等则称和社,和阇(Khosha)等,和尚者其转讹也。罗什三藏翻为力生,以依师而弟子之道力得生故也。晋书佛图澄传曰:“法常与法佐对车夜谈,言及和尚。比旦,佐入见澄,澄已知之。于是国人每相语曰:莫起恶心,和尚知汝。”按,此二字见正史之始也。魏书释老志,浮图澄为石勒所宗信,号为大和尚。大和尚又始见此。翻译名义曰:“和尚外国名,汉言知有罪知无罪也。”寄归传三曰:“言和尚者,非也。西方泛唤博士皆名乌社,斯非典语。若依梵本经律之文,咸云邬波驮耶译为亲教师,北方诸国皆唤和社,致令传译习彼讹音。”百一羯磨一曰:“邬波驮耶,译为亲教师。言和上者,乃是西方时俗语,非是典语。”玄应音义十四曰:“和尚菩萨内戒经作和阇,皆于阗国等讹也。应言郁波弟耶,此云近诵。以弟子年少不离于师,常逐近受经而诵也。又言邬波陀耶,此云亲教,旧译云知罪知无罪名为和尚也。”慧苑音义上曰:“和上,按五天雅言和上谓之坞波陀耶,然彼土流俗谓之殟社。于阗疏勒乃云鹘社,今此方讹音谓之和上。虽诸方殊异,今依正释。言坞波者,此云近也,陀耶者读也。言此尊师为弟子亲近,习读之者也。旧云亲教师者是也。”业疏三上曰:“中梵本音邬波陀耶。在唐译言,名之依学,依附此人学出道故。自古翻译,多杂蕃胡。胡传天语,不得声实。故有讹僻,转云和上。如昔人解和中最上,此逐字而释,不知音本。人又解云:翻力生。弟子道力,假教生成。得其远意,失其近语。真谛所译明了疏,则云优波陀诃。稍近梵音,犹乖声论。余亲参译,委问本音,如上所述。彦琮译云郁波弟耶,声相近也。”秘藏记本曰:“天竺呼俗博士曰乌邪,汉家讹误以乌邪为和尚。加以乌邪是俗儒之称,而名道人,大误耳。正可云拔底耶,天竺呼有智僧为人师者为拔底耶。拔底耶者,亲教义也。”
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