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六十二见《佛学大辞典》
(名数)见六字部本条。【六十二见】(名数)经论之诸释不同。多用下三种:(一)大品般若经佛母品开十四难而为六十二。先计色蕴有常等四句:一、色为常。二、色为无常。三、色为常无常。四、色为非常非无常。其他受等四蕴亦然,合而有二十句(计色之常无常,即言世间之常无常也。计他四蕴之常无常,即计神之常无常也),此于过去之五蕴之所计也。又计色有有边无边等四句:一、计色为有边,谓空间之十方上下,边际有穷极也。二、计色为无边,与上反。三、计色为有边无边。四、计色为非有边非无边。其他四蕴亦然,合而有二十句,此于现在五蕴之所执也。又计色有如去不如去等四句:一、计色为如去,谓人来而生于此间,去而至于后世亦如是也。二、计色为不如去,谓过去无所从来,未来亦无所去也。三、计色为如去不如去,谓身神和合而为人,死后神去而身不去也。四、计色为非如去非不如去,见有第三句过而计此句也。计他四蕴亦然,合而有二十句,此于未来五蕴之所见也。三世合而有六十句,于此加身与神之一异二见,而为六十二见(概括此六十二见,则神及世间之常无常等四句,与神及世间之边无边等四句,神及世间之如去不如去等四句,合而有十二句,及加身与神为一,身与神为异之二,故为十四,是曰十四难)。此六十二,但为断常有无之边见也。仁王经天台疏中曰:“六十二见,释者不同,且依大论:于五蕴上皆作四句;于色蕴云,过去色神及世间常,是事实,余妄语,无常等三句亦然,余阴亦如是,成二十;现在有边无边等历五阴上有二十;死后如去不如去等亦有二十;成六十。是神与身一,神与身异,成六十二。”(二)天台,嘉祥等诸师于二十种之我见成六十二见之一释。就外道色蕴而计我有四句:一、色是我,二、离色而有我,三、色为大,我为小,我住于色中,四、我为大,色为小,色住于我中。计他四蕴亦然,合而有二十。历三世合而为六十,以断常二见为根本,为六十二。是五见中身边二见之所属也。见文句四之二,义疏四。(三)本劫本见,末劫末见,有六十二见。阿含十四梵动经曰:“诸有沙门婆罗门于本劫本见末劫末见,种种无数随意所说,尽入六十二见中。(中略)诸沙门婆罗门于本劫本见种种无数各随意说,尽入十八见中。(中略)诸有沙门婆罗门于末劫末见无数种种随意所说,彼尽入四十四见中。”本劫者过去之时也,本见者于彼之过去起常见也末劫者未来之时也,末见者于未来世起断见也。本劫本见之十八,彼经说常论四,亦常亦无常论四,边无边论四,种种论四,无因而有论二也。末劫末见之四十四,有想论十六,无想论八,非有想非无想论八,断灭论七,现在泥洹论五也。瑜伽论八十七曰:“见萨迦耶见(译为我见)为根本,有六十二诸恶见趣,谓四遍常见论(即常论之四),四一分常见论(即常无论之四),二无因论(即无因而有论之二),四有边无边想论(即边无边论之四),四不死矫乱论(即种种论之四)也。如是十八诸恶见趣,是计前际而说我之论者也(即本劫本见)。又十六有见想论(即有想论之十六),八无想论(即无想论之八),八非有想非无想论(即非有想非无想论之八),七断见论(即断灭论之七),五现法涅槃论(即现在泥洹之五)。此四十四诸恶见趣,是计后际而说我之论者也(即末劫末见)。本劫本见中,常论之四者:一、外道入禅定,得忆识过去二十劫以来之事,而计其中之众为常住不灭也。二、某外道忆识过去四十劫以来之事,计之为常住也。三、某外道忆识过去八十劫以来之事,计之为常也。四、某外道以捷疾智或天眼,计现在之众生及世间为常住也。亦常亦无常之四者,一自梵天没而来生于人间,得宿住智,观前之来处,言彼大梵天王,自然而有:一、向是常,我等为彼所化,故为无常。二、彼天众为戏笑放逸。失定而没落于此土者,后得宿住智,知前之来处,计曰彼众之不戏笑放逸者,在彼为常住,我等戏笑,故致此无常。三、彼天众生欲染之心者,为之失定而没在于无间,后得宿住智,计言彼天众之无相无染者为常住,我等生欲染之心,乃致此生死无常。四、某人以捷疾智分别思量,计我及世间为常无常也。边无边之四者:一、有人入定,观世间有边际,而起边见,二、有人入定,观世间无边际,而起无边见,三、有人入定,观世间之上下有边,四方无边,或四方有边,上下无边,起亦有边亦无边之见,四、有人以捷疾智观察世间,起非有边非无边之见(是十四难中之四见)。种种论之四者:一、有人自不知世间有报无报,而他人来问此事,耻以不知答之,强随自己之所解而答之也。二、有人自不知有他世无他世,而有人来问此事,若记别有无,则恐为妄语,反问于彼,而随彼之所见,答以如是也。三、有人不知善与非善之法,而有人来问此事,以非善非恶答之也。四、有人自愚钝,不知他之问,他若有问,则随他之言而答之也。世有四种之人,于他问而住于如此见解,是为种种论之四见。瑜伽论名为不死矫乱论。外道所事之天名不死,事不死天者,遇他人问不死天之事,一种人以怖己之无知故,一种人以心有谄曲故,一种人以心怀恐怖故,一种人以愚钝故,为种种矫乱之答也。无因见论之二者:一有人先自无想天中生于人间,后修禅定,见前生之无想无心,世间无因而计为有也。一有人以捷疾智分别之,世间无因而执为有也。末劫末见中,有想论之十六者:一、计我终于此而后有色身,有想念。二、计无色身,唯有想念。三、计亦有色有想,亦无色有想。四、计非有色有想,非无色有想。是为以想对色之四句。又一、计我死于此,而后有边际,有想念。二、计无边际,有想念。三、计亦有边有想,亦无边有想。四、计非有边有想,非无边有想。是为以想对边无边之四句。又一、计我终于此而后有苦有想。二、计有乐有想。三、计亦有苦有想,亦有乐有想。四、计非有苦有想,非有乐有想。是为以想对苦乐之四句。又一、计我死于此而后有一想。二、计有若干想。三、计有小想。四、计有无量想。是为以想对多少之四句。总为十六想之见论也。无想论之八者,无想对于色身有四句:一、我终于此后有色而无想。二、亦无色亦无想。三、亦有色无想,亦无色无想。四、非有色无想,非无色无想。又无想对于边无边有四句:一、我终于此后有边际而无想。二、无边无想。三、亦有边无想亦无边无想。四、非有边无想,非无边无想。合有八句,为无想之八见。彼既为无想论,故无对苦乐之四句,亦无对多少之四句,以是皆为有想上之见解故也。非有想非无想之八者,对于色有四句,对于边无边有四句,可准于无想论而知之。无苦乐之四句,多少之四句,亦非想非无想故也,断灭之七者:一、我今此身,为四大所成,父母所生,衣食之所养,是为无常,终归于断灭。二、我今此身,不得灭尽,生于欲界天乃终断灭。三、欲界天之身,未得灭尽,至于色界天,诸根具足,彼之报尽,竟归于断灭。四、在色界地中,未得灭尽,生于无色界之空无边处,而可断灭。五、在空无边处中,未得灭尽,生于识无边处而可断灭。六、在识无边处中,未得断灭,生于无所有处而后可灭尽。七、无所有处中,尚不可灭尽,生于非想,非非想处,彼之非想报尽,断灭无余。现在泥洹之五者,瑜伽论谓为现在涅槃:一、有人言我今此身泥洹,何则?我于现在之五欲,自恣受快乐,此身即是泥洹,过之更无泥洹,是指欲界为泥洹也。二、有人指色界之初禅天为泥洹。三、有人指色界之第二禅天为泥洹。四、有人指色界之第三禅天为泥洹。五、指色界之第四禅天为泥洹。无色界之四空处,今略之不论。见大乘义章六,大乘义林章四末,法华文句四之二。
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