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Term Definition
密教十重戒《佛学大辞典》
(术语)有二说:(一)无畏三藏禅要曰:“一、菩提心不可退,有妨成佛故也。二、不可舍三宝而归依外道,是为邪法故也。三、不可毁谤三宝及三乘之教典,背佛性故也。四、于甚深之大乘经典有不通解处,不可生疑惑,非凡夫之境故也。五、若有众生,已发菩提心,则不可说使退菩提心而趣向,二乘之法,断三宝之种故也。六、于未发菩提心者,亦不可说使彼发二乘心之法,违于本愿故也。七、不应对于小乘及邪见人之前辄说大乘之法,恐彼生谤获大殃故也。八、不可发起诸邪见等之法,恐断善根故也。九、于外道之前,不可自说我具无上菩提之妙戒。恐彼以瞋恨之心,求如是之物,不辨得,则退菩提心,二俱有损故也。十、但于一切众生有所损害及无利益者,皆不可作,又不可使人作,见作而随喜,与利他之法及慈悲心相违背故也。”(二)大日经九说前四重。同十七说后六重。曰:“一、不应舍正法,一切如来之圣教,皆当授修行受持读诵,如大海之纳百川,无厌足之心。若于诸乘了不了之义,于一切法门,随生弃舍之心。则如声闻乘中对于若堪作法之人,心生口言,舍一法随成舍戒。在具足毗尼,虽不堕众教固非犯戒之罪,今于此秘密大乘,毕竟无有舍义,故成重罪也。又此一切法门,皆是大悲世尊于无量阿僧祇劫所积集,为欲于普门饶益一切众生,故演说之,犹如不应不辨字轮之一,如声闻人,舍一事,犹因和合之义断,而丧失律仪,何况摩诃衍耶?二、不应舍离菩提心,此菩提心,于菩萨之万行犹如大将之幢旗,若大将丧失幢旗时,则是三军败绩,堕于他之胜处,故为波罗夷也。三、于一切法不应悭吝,有人不舍正,不离菩提心,然于正法悭吝,不肯观机而惠施,亦波罗夷罪也。四、勿于一切众生作不饶益行,此是与四摄相违之法,四摄是菩萨具戒中之四依,初受戒时,先应开示此遮难,若能奉行者,方可受之,不能奉行,则非摩诃萨埵,不得受之。其所以然者,菩萨发一切智心,为欲普摄一切众生,为欲作三乘入道因缘,而今反作四摄相违之法,起众生障道之因缘故也。五、不谤一切三乘教法,若谤之者,即是谤佛法僧谤大菩提心,故为犯重。以秘密藏中一切方便皆是佛之方便也,是故毁一一之法,即是谤一切法。世间治世产业艺术等事,皆有正理相应,亦不可谤,何况三乘法耶?六、不应于一切法生于悭吝,菩萨集一切法,为一切众生也,若有所秘惜,则是舍菩提也,故为犯重。七、不得邪见,拨无因果,无无见道之人等诸邪见是也,自然舍佛法僧及菩提心,故为犯重。八、于发大心人劝发其心不令退息,若见其懈退而不劝发,或阻止其心,或使离无上菩提之道,则是违逆一切如来所应作之事,故为犯重。九、于小乘人前不观彼根而说小法,或于大乘人之前不观彼机而说小法之行,即犯重禁。是以方便不具,违逆如来之方便,差机说法,为人天之怨故也。十、菩萨常当行施,不得施他人以害物之具,如施酒施药刀杖之类,一切不饶益之具,是犯重也。
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