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Term Definition
密教五大《佛学大辞典》
(术语)密教有胎金两界,其胎藏界以色等五大为大日如来之理法身。密教以摄持为理之义,以事物总称为理。此五者圆满一切之功德,故名为五轮。其种子为阿尾罗吽欠,或阿缚罗诃佉。即五方五佛之种子也。以此五大配于五方之五佛。善无畏于尊胜轨以地水火风空顺其次第,配于东西南北中。不空于宿曜经以为空风火水地,逆其次第,配于东西南北中。是善无畏由于始觉上转之修生金刚界中因之义,不空取世间五行木火土金水,配于东南中西北,青赤黄白黑(即事而真之意),且依本觉下转之本有胎藏界十因之义也。见“五转”条。不空取中因之义,故以地大为中央大日,是为发心之位。此以本有之菩提心,坚固不动,为诸法本源之体性,犹如大地之坚固不动,且为万物之中心,并为其体性本源故也。法界体性智之为诸法本源亦然。大日如来之法界体性亦然。黄色为不变色,故是亦与菩提心之不变相应。其次以空大为东方阿閦,是为发心之位。此以本有之菩提心,发归本之菩提心,修万行,行行圆具,而无缺灭,犹如彼虚空之含容一切万物故也。其大圆镜智之含容万象亦然。其为东方者,以东方为万物之始,故与万行之起首相应。其为青色者,以青色含容五色(故谓之一切色),故与含容万行相应。次以风火为西方阿弥陀,是为涅槃之位。此以阿弥陀一译无量寿,无量寿为涅槃之德也,而其无量寿为风大之德,犹如世人之寿赖于风息也。其妙观察智说法断疑生信之功用,与风大之能杀能成二德相应。其在西方者,涅槃为万物之终归,故对于东方之万物起首而以之为西位也。其白色与无量光及慈水之白净相应。次以火大为南方宝生,此为成菩提之位。以其万行成熟,开菩提之花,犹如火热之于草木也。故宝生佛在胎藏界称为开敷华王如来,又其平等性智亡说法之差别,犹如火之能烧尽物。其配于南方为赤色。不言可知。次以水大为北方不空成就(释迦),是为方便究竟之位。此以利他之方便,成就利他之妙业,其能应众生之机能除迷妄,犹如水之方圆随于器,且能洗尘垢也。又其成所作智成妙业之义亦然。其在北方者。印度之俗以北方为胜方,故究竟位与胜位相应。黑色是染色之至极,故与究竟位之至极相应。善无畏依东因之义,以地大为东方阿閦,为发心之位。此以修生之菩提心为因,生大悲之万行,犹如地为生万物之根本也。且其菩提心之坚固不动亦如地。故阿閦之记不动也。又其大圆镜智之任持一切诸法与地之能任持万物相应。其为东方者。以此为修生之起首也。其黄与菩提心之不变相应。次以水大为西方弥陀,为成菩提之位。此以菩提心之自性清净及无量光之究竟圆明,犹如水之圆明也。又其妙观察智说法断疑之德,如水之能洗尘垢。其西方与行证之终极相应。白色与无量光相应。次以火大为南方宝生,为修行之位。以其修成万行。犹如火热之能成熟物也。又其平等性智灭一切之妄差别而使为平等一如亦然。此义与上不空之义同。惟约果转因相违。次以风大为北方不空成就,为入涅槃之位。此以涅槃之寂灭万物,如风火之能破坏万物也(三灾中风灾尤强。破第三禅)。又成所作智之所作已辨,入于涅槃亦然。其北方与涅槃之高位相应。黑色与涅槃之幽然深妙相应。又佛日隐于涅槃之山。与十方闇黑相应。次以空大为中央大日,为方便究竟之位。以其圆成四德,含容自利利他一切之功德,犹如虚空之含容一切万象也。又其法界体性智之周遍法界,广大无边亦然。其中位与周遍法界相应。青色与含容一切相应。
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