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Term Definition
牟尼《佛学大辞典》
(术语)Nuni,译曰寂。又作寂默,寂静。有二解:一就事,一就理。就事而解,则悉多太子始入劫毗罗城时,使诸释子寂静无言,故父王附以牟尼之称,又出家后常修禅行,而寂默无言,故从时人受牟尼仙之号。牟尼本为静止身口意三业之学道者之尊号,通于内外之称号也。毗奈耶杂事二十日:“是时菩萨乘四宝舆,无量百千人天翊从入劫比罗城。诸释迦子,体怀憍慢,立性多言。菩萨入城,皆悉默然牟尼无语。王见之已,报诸臣曰:诸释迦子体怀傲慢,立说多言。太子入城,皆悉默然牟尼无语。应与太子名名曰:释迦牟尼。此是菩萨第二立名。”佛本行集经二十曰:“菩萨行路,谛视徐行。有人借问,默然不答。彼等人民各相语言:此仙人者必释种子。因此得名释迦牟尼。”玄应音义十八曰:“牟尼,经中或作文尼,旧译言仁,应云茂泥,此云仙。仙通内外,谓久在山林修心学道者也。”仁王经合疏上曰:“牟尼者名也,此云寂默,三业但寂默也。”理趣释下曰:“牟尼者,寂静义,身口意寂静,故称牟尼。”就理而解,则佛与三乘之圣人所证之法名寂默,依之而称佛为牟尼,盖佛及阿罗汉之通称也。唯识论十曰:“大觉世尊,成就无上寂默法,故名大牟尼。”俱舍论十六曰:“无学身语业名身语牟尼,意牟尼即无学意。(中略)何故牟尼唯在无学,以阿罗汉是实牟尼,诸烦恼言永寂静故。”大日经疏一曰:“牟尼者,是寂默义,言佛身语心皆究竟寂灭过言语地。以对二乘小寂,不可为譬,故云大牟尼也。”同十二曰:“牟尼者,寂默义也。常寂之土,微妙寂绝。幽深玄远,不可以言说之。如是法界寂然大灭度法,唯佛一人究竟清净,故名牟尼也。”同十三曰:“牟尼,是佛都号也。”宗轮论述记曰:“牟尼者,此翻为寂。寂烦恼故,寂生死故,处大涅槃得寂灭故,寂诸戏论证真理故。”唯识述记十末曰:“梵言牟尼,此言寂默。寂默法者离言法也。或离过故名为寂默,通三乘解,成一切法性相离言不二法门,名为寂默。”
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