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Term Definition
塔《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又作塔婆、兜婆、偷婆、浮图等。皆梵语窣堵波(Stūpa,巴Thūpa)之讹略也。高积土石,以藏遗骨者。又名俱攞。译言聚、高显、坟、灵庙等。别有所谓支提或制底(Chaitya),言不藏身骨者。或通称为塔。亦曰支提。法华义疏十一曰:“依僧祇律有舍利名塔婆,无舍利名支提。地持云:莫问有无,皆名支提。明了论云:支提,此云净处。”行事钞下二曰:“杂心云:有舍利名塔,无者名支提。塔或名塔婆,或云偷婆,此云冢,亦云方坟。支提云庙,庙者貌也。”玄应音义六曰:“诸经论中,或作薮斗波,或作塔婆,或作兜婆,或云偷婆,或言苏偷婆,或作支提浮都,亦言支提浮图,皆讹略也。正言窣堵波,此译云庙。或云方坟,此义翻也。或云大冢,或云聚相,谓累石等高以为相也。”西域记一曰:“窣堵波,即旧所谓浮图也。又曰鍮婆,又曰塔婆,又曰私鍮簸,又曰数斗波,皆讹也。”法华文句记三曰:“新云窣睹波,此云高显,方坟,义立也。谓安置身骨处也。”寄归传三曰:“大师世尊既涅槃后,人天并集以火焚之。(中略)即名此处以为制底。”塔有显密二教之别。显教以为揭高德之标帜,即所谓墓标,故限于佛乃至有德之比丘。密教以为大日如来之三昧耶形。五轮塔是佛体。非墓标。因而许为结缘追福。建于一般僧俗之墓处,俗曰石塔、塔婆、窣堵波者,指此五轮塔也。
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