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Term Definition
塔之层级《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)探玄记八曰:“依长阿含经四人应起塔:一佛,二辟支,三声闻,四轮王也。真谛三藏引十二因缘经云八人应起塔:一如来,露盘八重已上,是佛塔。二菩萨,七盘。三缘觉,六盘。四罗汉,五盘。五那含,四盘。六斯陀含,三盘。七须陀洹,二盘。八轮王一盘。若见之不得礼,以非圣塔故也(所引之十二因缘经今不传)。又依僧祇律,凡僧亦起塔。谓持律法师,营事比丘,德望比丘,应起塔,既非圣人。总无露盘。仍使在屏处。若违之。则结罪。准此等文,今方为师造塔,广起露盘,非惟现人得罪,亦乃累彼先亡。深可悲也。”后分涅槃经上曰:“佛告阿难:佛般涅槃荼毗既讫,一切四众收取舍利置七宝瓶,当于拘尸那伽城内四衢道中起七宝塔,高十三层,上有相轮。”寄归传二曰:“或有收其设利罗为亡人作塔,名为俱攞。形如小塔,上无轮盖,然塔有凡圣之别,如律中广论。”毗奈耶杂事十八曰:“佛言:应可用砖两重作基,次安塔身,上安覆钵,随意高下。上置平头,高一二尺方二三尺,准量大小,中竖轮竿,次着相轮。其相轮重数或一二三四乃至十三。次安宝瓶。(中略)佛告长者:若为如来造窣睹波者,应可如前具足而作。若为独觉勿安宝瓶,若阿罗汉相轮四重,不还至三。一来应二,预流应一,凡夫善人,但可平头,无有轮盖。”已上十二因缘经所云之露盘,即为后分涅槃经所云之层,每级出四檐者。寄归传毗奈耶杂事所云之相轮,即今之所谓九轮。一就檐数,一就相轮而论差别也。资持记下一之四曰:“露盘即四檐也。(中略)凡僧不得出檐安级。今有出檐者由不知教,僭同上圣。(中略)相轮者,圆轮耸出,以为表相故也。”故凡圣皆许相轮。行事钞下一之四亦引用上出探玄记所引之僧祇律辨之。然则相轮谓为露盘,或覆钵下之斗形,谓为露盘。非经意也。
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