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Term Definition
文殊《佛学大辞典》
(菩萨)Mañjuśrī,文殊师利之略,旧称文殊师利,满殊尸利,新称曼殊室利。新旧有六译:无量寿经、涅槃经曰妙德,无行经曰妙首,观察三昧经,大净法门经曰普首,阿目佉经、普超经曰濡首,无量门微密经、金刚璎珞经曰敬首(已上旧译);大日经曰妙吉祥、文殊或曼殊,是妙之义;师利或室利,是头之义,德之义,吉祥之义也。此菩萨与普贤为一对,常侍释迦如来之左,而司智慧(普贤在右司理,但当以右智左理,今违之,一依胜劣之次第,二示理智融通之义也)。心地观经八曰:“三世觉母妙吉祥。”放钵经曰:“今我得佛,皆是文殊师利之恩也。过去无央数诸佛,皆是文殊师利弟子。当来者亦是其威神力所致。譬如世间小儿有父母,文殊者佛道中父母也。”此菩萨顶结五髻,以表大日之五智,手持剑,以表智慧之利剑,驾师子以表智慧之威猛。此文殊有种种之差别,如一字文殊,五字文殊,六字文殊,八字文殊,一髻文殊,五髻文殊,八髻文殊,儿文殊等。此中以五字五髻文殊为本体。法华文句二曰:“文殊师利,此云妙德。大经云:了了见佛性,犹如妙德。”法华嘉祥疏二曰:“文殊,此云妙德。以了了见佛性,故德无不圆,累无不尽,称妙德也。”西域记四曰:“曼殊室利,唐言妙吉祥,旧曰濡首,又曰文殊师利,或言曼殊尸利,译曰妙德,讹也。”探玄记四曰:“梵语唤头为室利、吉祥、德等,亦为室利,故致翻译不同也。”慧苑音义上曰:“文殊师利,正云曼殊室利,言曼殊者此云妙也,室利者德也。”
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