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Term Definition
一乘《佛学大辞典》
(术语)成佛唯一之教也。乘为车乘,以譬佛之教法。教法能载人运于涅槃岸,故谓之乘。法华经专说此一乘之理。法华经方便品曰:“十方佛土中,唯有一乘法,无二亦无三,除佛方便说。”同品曰:“诸佛如来,以方便力,于一佛乘,分别说三。”同品曰:“唯此一事实,余二则非真。”文句四上曰:“圆顿之教,为一佛乘。”胜鬘经曰:“一乘即是第一义乘。”胜鬘宝窟上本曰:“一乘者,至道无二,故称为一。运用自在,目之为乘。”依法华论,此大乘修多罗,有十七种名,第十四名一乘经。起信论义记上曰:“乘者就喻为称,运载为功。”案方便品所说,即开会三乘之别执,悉归趣于平等大会,等使一切众生成佛道也。盖大乘佛教中,所谓权大乘家,立一切有情为法尔,五性各别之说。故其中定性二乘及无性,毕竟无由成佛。是故诸佛之法,自不可无三乘之别。定性二乘,必由声闻缘觉之二乘而般涅槃,菩萨种性,必由大乘而般涅槃。然法华等经,或说唯有一乘者,是引摄不定性者,不使堕于二乘地,进而使由大乘般涅槃也,即如来密意之说也。又以所趣之真如无差别,三乘解脱等相等,故说为一乘耳。实则非无二三之别也。如大乘庄严经论第五,摄大乘论释第十,广列十义或八义意趣而论之。是为所谓三乘真实一乘方便之教旨,以深密等经为所依之法相家所主张也。至于实大乘则不然。盖其所立之说,一切众生,本无五性之别,悉有佛性,一性平等,故皆得由佛乘而成佛。昔曾说三乘各别之法者,不过为对于权机假说之方便耳。此为所谓一乘真实三乘方便之教旨,天台华严等宗家所主张也。其中天台所依之法华经,主对于三乘之人,说其教之所以方便,开会之,使归于一佛乘,华严经主对于十地之大菩萨,广说其所入之一乘法,故至智俨贤首,分一乘而更论同教别教之二种。五十要问答上,谓“一乘教有二种:一共教,二不共教。”孔目章一,谓“一乘之义,分别有二,一正乘,二方便乘,正乘如华严经所说,方便乘有十义”云云。又五教章上,谓“一乘教义之分齐,开为二门。一别教,二同教。”并广释述之。今择要言之,则在同于三乘而说一乘为同教,于三乘全不共而别说一乘为别教。彼法华譬喻品所谓宅内所指之门外三车,三乘教也。界外露地所授之大白牛车,是别教一乘教也。同教者,如是三一不为别说。或谓一同于三,或谓三同于一,互相交参,是欲使成根欲性,进而入于华严别教一乘也。由是而概括之,一乘凡有三种:一、为存三之一乘,所谓不破三乘之疑执,亦不会二乘之行果,唯就空理之平等而说为一乘。如摄大乘论之十义意趣是也。二、为遮三之一乘,会二乘之行果,遮三乘之别执,而说为一乘。如法华之同教一乘是也。三、为直显之一乘,不对于二乘,故无可破,唯为大菩萨,直示法界成佛之仪。如华严之别教一乘是也。又若经五教而论之,则总有五种之一乘。一别教一乘,如华严是。二同教一乘,如法华是。三绝想一乘,如楞伽是。是为顿教。所谓绝想亡言之边,名为一乘。四佛性平等一乘,是为终教。一性皆成之边,名为一乘。五密意一乘,即为始教。如摄论之十义意趣是。
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