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Term Definition
一切经《佛学大辞典》
(术语)佛教圣典之总名。或曰大藏经。省曰藏经。隋书开皇元年,京师及诸大都邑之处,并官写一切经,置于寺内。而又别写藏于秘阁。一切经之名,本乎此。此名原称佛所说之经律等,而今则并吾国印度日本等高僧之著作而称之。佛教传播于世界各国之间,其圣典为各种之国语所翻译举其主要者,则原本为散斯克利图Saṁskṛt语及巴利Páli语。翻译而传者,有汉译藏,西藏藏,蒙古藏,满洲藏(详“清字经馆”条),及欧译之诸典。散斯克利图语之原本,自北方尼波罗地方,渐次为学者所发见,然其数未甚多。巴利语之原本,为巴利三藏,即锡兰暹罗缅甸等南方诸国所现传者。其中暹罗之官版藏经,以西纪一八八八年出版,世界各国之大学或学会,均得寄赠。巴利三藏中。律藏Viuaya-Piṭakaṁ,为波罗提木叉Pratimokkha注释之悉答韦蒲般伽Sutta-vibhanga、蹇陀Khandh-aka、波利婆罗Parivāra三部,经藏Sutta-Piṭakaṁ,为长阿含Digha-nikāya中阿含Majjhima-nikāya、杂阿含Saṁyutta-nikāya、增一阿含Aṅguttara-nikāya、小阿含khuddak-anikāya之五部,谕藏Abhidhamma-Piṭakaṁ,为法僧伽Dhamma-Saṅgaṇi以下总有七论。西藏藏为喇嘛教徒之所护持,属于经部者,总计八类,百五十一部,三百五十册,更有续藏二百二十三册,其经部为清康熙二十三年所刊行,其续藏则为雍正六年所镂刻者。蒙古藏及满洲藏为奉天所保存,其中满洲藏经,世界唯有一部,日俄之战,为日本所得。此外各国语之藏经,虽尚有数种,而其中卷帙最浩繁,部义皆完备者,实维汉译藏。案汉译藏经印行之最古者。则以宋太祖开宝五年,平定列国,造金银字佛经,前后凡数藏。同年敕印雕佛经一藏,凡一十三万版,为其嚆矢。寻而至道元年,高丽王治遣使至宋求官本,与其国从来所藏之前后二藏及契丹藏,参订校旧,经十四年,全行刻成。世所谓高丽藏者是也,凡一千五百二十一部,六千五百八十九卷。南宋理宗嘉熙三年,复开版藏经,有一千四百二十一部,五千九百十六卷,所谓宋藏者是也(详宋藏条)。元世祖至元十四年,亦翻刻藏经,至二十七年告竣,有一千四百二十二部,六千一十七卷,称为元藏者是也(详见“元藏”条)。此藏罹元末之兵燹,与宋藏共归灰烬,惟流传于日本者尚存。有尼法珍者(详“法珍”条),慨然起兴藏之志,经三十年。渐奏其功,是为方册藏经之滥觞明成祖永乐十八年,敕印刻大藏经版,至正统五年,始告竣,是为北藏。藏于北京。其南藏者,为太祖洪武时所刻。成祖又敕安置石刻一藏于大石洞。然流通未遍,学者多感不便。后神宗时,密藏禅师亦发愿刻方册藏本,万历十七年,于五台山创刻,业未竣而入寂,后人迭继其业,遂完成之,是谓明藏。有六千七百七十一卷。清藏则于雍正十三年开工。乾隆三年告竣。又有京西石经山之石刻藏经。则晋琬公法师刻石贮封石洞者也。日本现存古写本不少。而最著者,为堀川天皇敕僧侣一万人,于一日写一切经,顺德天皇敕一万五千僧,于一日写一切经等。德川氏使天海僧正,刻活字排印大藏,其活字及藏经今尚在,有六千三百廿三卷。寻而黄檗之铁眼和尚,又将明藏上梓。明治十三年,弘教书院以丽藏为本,与宋元明三本对校,印行活字板大藏经,计一千九百十六部,八千五百三十四卷,缩成四十帙,四百十八册。明治三十三年,藏经书院又以活字印行日本大藏经。藏教书院复纂辑藏经所漏者,题为日本续藏经,共七千八百七十三卷。清季上海频伽精舍,根据弘教本,略加增减,以活字印行大藏经四十帙,四百十四册,一千九百十六部,八千四百十六卷。挽近英法德俄诸国语之译本,渐见于世,将来更有西文一切经,未可知也。
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