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Term Definition
译经院《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)翻译梵本之道场也。佛祖统纪四十三曰:“天息灾述译经仪式,于东堂面西粉布圣坛(作坛以粉饰之事在藏经),开四门,各以一梵僧主之,持秘密咒七日夜。又设木坛布圣贤名字轮(坛形正圆,层列佛大士天神名佐,环绕其上,如车轮之状),目曰大法曼拏罗(此云大会)。请圣贤阿伽沐浴(阿伽此云器,凡供养之器,皆称曰阿伽,今言阿伽,乃是沐浴器),设香华灯水殽果之供。礼拜绕旋,祈请冥佑,以殄魔障。第一译主,正坐面外,宣传梵文。第二证义,坐其左,与译主评量梵文。第三证文,坐其右,听译主高读梵文,以验差误。第四书字梵学僧,审听梵文,书成华字,犹是梵音(初为纥哩第野,为素怛览)。第五笔受,翻梵音成华音。(纥哩第野再翻为心,素怛览翻为经)。第六缀文,回缀文字使成句义(如笔受云照见五蕴彼自性空见此,今云照见五蕴皆空,大率梵音多先能后所,如念佛为佛念,打钟为钟打,故须回缀字句,以顺此土之文)。第七参译,参考两土文字使无误。第八刊定,刊削冗长定取句义(如无无明无明,剩两字,如上正遍知,上阙一无字)。第九润文,官于僧众南向设位。参详润色(如心经度一切苦厄一句,元无梵本,又是故空中一句,是故两字,元无梵本)。僧众日日沐浴,三衣坐具,威仪整肃,所须受用,悉从官给。天息灾言:译文有与御名庙讳同者,前代皆不避。若变文回避,虑妨经旨。今欲依国学九经但阙点画,诏答:佛经用字宜从正文,庙讳御名不须回避。”山堂考索曰:“太宗崇尚释教,置院于太平兴国寺,后改为传法院,车驾亦尝临幸。得西域僧法天及天息灾施获等,取所献梵书翻译焉。天息灾等并赐紫袍师号,又命文臣润色其文。是岁天息灾等献所译经文一卷,诏入藏刻板流行。自是尽取禁中梵夹,俾之翻译,每诞节即献经焉。天息灾等皆至朝散大夫光禄寺鸿胪卿以卒。自是译经之盛,后世无比。”
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