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一日不作,一日不食《俗语佛源》
亦农亦禅、农禅结合是佛门僧侣的一个优良传统。僧侣们在礼佛、坐禅之余,不但参加耕种、收割、植树等农林劳动,还要从事砍柴、挑水等日常劳作。六祖慧能就曾在碓房内干过杂活。正式创立农禅制度的是唐代百丈山怀海(720年·814年)禅师。怀海,福州长乐人,出家后师从马祖道一,在江西弘扬禅宗二十多年。他制定了禅寺中的集体劳动制度,称为“普请”法。怀海以身作则,带领僧众参加劳动。执事僧见他年老,心中不忍,暗中藏了他的农具,请他歇息。怀海一时找不到他的农具,竟然不肯吃饭。“故有一日不作、一日不食之语,流播寰宇矣。”事见《五灯会元》卷三。怀海之后,农禅之风盛行禅林。禅宗认为,穿衣吃饭、砍柴挑水,日常劳动,都是佛法。实行农禅,可使得心境溶为一体,佛法、世法打成一片。也有利于寺院经济的自给自足,增强僧侣的勤劳习惯。此外,劳动能够活动筋骨,益寿延年。怀海本人活到九十五岁的高龄,便是明证。(李明权)
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