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Term Definition
半不男《佛学大辞典》
(术语)五种不男之一。
半偈《佛学大辞典》
(本生)诸行无常,是生灭法,生灭灭已,寂灭为乐之后半偈也。涅槃经十四谓释迦如来往昔入雪山修菩萨行时,从罗刹闻前半偈,欢喜而更欲求后半。罗刹不听。乃约舍身与彼。欲得闻之。故谓为雪山之半偈,亦曰雪山之八字。心地观经一曰:“时佛往昔在凡夫,入于雪山求佛道摄心勇猛勤精进,为求半偈舍全身。”涅槃经十四曰:“为求八字故,弃所爱身。”
半只迦《佛学大辞典》
(异类)Pañika’,又曰半支迦,般止柯,散支,散支迦,般阇迦,德叉迦。八大夜叉之第三,鬼子母之夫也。大日经疏五曰:“半只迦,旧曰散支。”毗奈耶杂事三十一曰:“昔王舍城内一山边有药叉神,名曰娑多。北方犍陀多罗国复有药叉,名半遮罗。娑多娶妻生女,容貌多严,见者爱乐。其生之时,诸药叉众咸皆欢庆,诸亲立字名曰欢喜(即鬼子母神)。半遮罗妇有娠,月满生儿,名曰半支迦。昔曾二人指腹为亲,半支迦即娶欢喜为妻。”呵哩底母经曰:“有大药叉女名曰欢喜,容貌端严,有五千眷属,常住支那国护持世界。是娑多大药叉将之女,娉半支迦大药叉将(昔云散指者讹),生五百子。”大药叉女欢喜母并爱子成就法曰:“佛至王舍城竹林精舍为诸人天演说法要,时有大药叉女名曰欢喜,容貌端严,有五千眷属,常住支那国护持世界。是沙多大药叉将之女,聘半支迦大药叉将(名散指者讹),生五百子。”杂宝藏经七曰:“鬼子母者,是鬼神王般阇迦妻。”陀罗尼集经七曰:“鬼子母夫字德叉迦。”。孔雀王咒经下曰:“般止柯大药叉军主,诃梨底药叉女,及五百子等所随喜。”孔雀明王经曰:“散指迦大将,诃利帝母,及五百子。”见“散支”条。
半夏《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)结夏与解夏之中间也。临济录曰:“师因半夏上黄蘗。”
半天婆罗门《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)饿鬼之种类也。焰罗王供养法次第曰:“五百饿鬼,半天婆罗门,诸饿鬼众。”
半天婆罗门多闻天双身法《佛学大辞典》
(修法)溪岚拾叶集九曰:“一义云双身法者,半天婆罗门与多闻天不二一体之意也。其缘起云:此多闻天往昔与此半天婆罗门同时发心,多闻天以精进苦行故,速成福智,半天婆罗门以懈怠乐行故,今在凡地。于是起猛利强盛之瞋恚,发誓行于修多闻天法之处,而为障碍神。所诠多闻天表法性,半天表无明也。无明法性为相违之法,故此双身相背,无明法性为同体之惑,故不相离也。法性无体,全依无明。无明无体,全依法性。宜深思之。”
半娜《佛学大辞典》
(植物)果名。见“半娜婆”条。
半娜婆《佛学大辞典》
(植物)果名。可洪音义一曰:“半娜,奴可反,亦名半娜婆,亦云般捺婆,亦云波那婆。西域记云:其果大如冬瓜,熟则黄赤,剖之中有数十小果,大于鸡卵。又更剖之,其汁黄赤,其味甘美。”玄应音义二十四曰:“半娜婆,旧云波那婆。果形如冬瓜,其味甚甘也。”婆为娑之误。梵Panasa。
半字《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语悉昙章之生字根本,为半字,摩多十二字,体文三十五字是也。余章之文字义理皆具足,为满字。毗伽罗论是也,以半字譬小乘。满字譬大乘。涅槃经五曰:“譬如长者,唯有一子。心常忆念,怜爱无已。将诣师所,欲令受学。惧不速成,寻便将还。以爱念故,昼夜慇懃,教其半字,而不教诲毗伽论。何以故?以其幼稚,力未堪故。(中略)半字者,谓九部经。毗伽论者,所谓方等大乘教典。”同八曰:“云何如来说字根本?佛言:善男子!初说半字以为根本,持诸记论咒术文章诸阴实法。凡夫之人,学此字本,然后能知是法非法(此下说十四音五十字之义)。半字者,皆是烦恼言说之本,故名半字。满字者是一切善法言说之根本也。譬如世间,为恶之者名为半人,修善之者名为满人。”行宗记一上曰:“涅槃论云:半字者渐教,满字者涅槃满足教。”止观辅行六曰:“半字者,引证唯小。”
半字教《佛学大辞典》
(术语)昙无谶所立二教之一。判一切之小乘教为半字教。见“半字”条。
半座《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)世尊尝分半座使迦叶坐,是二乘与佛同解脱床之义也。华手经一曰:“世尊遥命之曰:善来迦叶,久乃相见,汝当就此如来半座。佛移时大千世界六反震动。”杂阿含四十一曰:“告摩诃迦叶:善来迦叶,于此半座。我今竟知谁先出家,汝耶我耶?”佛本起经下曰:“善来迦叶,豫分半床。”又多宝如来分多宝塔中半座,使释迦如来坐之。见法华经见宝塔品。
半托迦《佛学大辞典》
(人名)Panthaka,又曰半他迦,槃陀迦,般陀,槃特。罗汉名。译曰路边生,又曰路。有兄弟二人,兄为大路边生,或曰大路。弟为小路边生,或曰愚路。以其皆于路上所生也。兄聪明,弟愚钝,然皆出家,证罗汉果。善见律十六曰:“般陀,汉曰路边生。般陀之母,为大富长者女,与其家奴通,逃于他国,久而有孕,垂产思归。于中路产子。如是复生弟。长名莫诃般陀(Mahā-),弟名周罗般陀(Cūḍa-)。”有部毗奈耶三十一,大毗婆沙一百八十亦记出生及出家之因缘(大同小异),分别功德论五以般咃为道生,祝利般咃为极闇道生。文曰:“祝利者极也,此比丘精神疏钝,佛教使诵扫帚,得帚忘扫,得扫忘帚。六年之中专心诵此,意遂解悟。而自惟曰:帚者彗,扫者除。帚者即喻八正道,粪者三毒垢也。以八正道彗扫三毒垢,所谓扫帚义者,正谓此耶?深思此理,心即开解,得阿罗汉道。”增一阿含经十一曰:“是时周利槃特诵得扫复忘彗,若诵得彗复忘扫。”
半拏啰嚩悉宁《佛学大辞典》
(菩萨)Pāṇḍaravāsinī,又作伴陀罗缚子尼。白处观音又白衣观音之梵名也。大日经疏五曰:“半拏罗缚悉宁,译云白处。以尊常在白莲华中,故以为名。”海轨曰:“伴陀罗缚子尼,是白衣观音也。”秘藏记钞八曰:“约住处名白处,约衣服名白衣。疏第五云:袭纯素衣,是白衣义也。”秘藏记末曰:“莲华部马头观音为主,伴陀罗缚字尼是白衣观音也,此为母。”
半择迦《佛学大辞典》
(术语)此云变。今生变作不男者。
半斋《佛学大辞典》
(术语)半日之斋也。斋法,一日一夜以今日之明相至翌日之明相为限。故过今日之正午,至明日之夜明,不可食一物,若至夜分为食事而破斋,曰半斋。自正午至暮持半日之斋。至夜分而破斋也。故就昼食曰半斋。就夜分曰破斋。半斋破斋同意也。经律异相四十四曰:“破斋犹得生天第九。昔有迦罗越,兴设大檀请佛及僧。时一人卖酪,主人留食,劝令持斋听经,至暝乃归。妇语之言:我朝来不食,相待至今,败坏夫斋,半斋之福犹生天上。七世生人间常,得自然。一日持斋,六十万岁自然之粮。”旧杂譬喻经上曰:“昔有四姓请佛饭。时有一人卖牛湩,大姓留止饭,教持斋戒。止听经,宾乃归。妇言:我朝相待未饭,便强令夫饭,坏其斋意。虽尔,七生天上,七生世间。”

又禅门之诸规,有半斋之语,诸解多端,或言早朝粥时与正午斋时之中间曰半斋,半斋为时之名。申言之,即于粥斋之中间点心曰半斋之点心,于粥斋之中间为法事曰半斋之讽经。诵半斋亦去,半斋以时而名也。象器笺三曰:“旧说云:在粥与斋之半,故曰半斋。(中略)半斋者,时名也。”或言半斋为正午之斋,以日中午刻为一日之正半也。宋高僧传一贞诲传曰:“半斋僧讫,望空合掌而卒。”或言半斋者于午前略用食物也。是与点心混同,此说非也。或言半斋一作判斋。半判音同,故以判斋为半斋也,判即判释之意,判断疏通献斋之意也。然则半斋者,谓禅家所谓献斋之回向文。又指献斋回向之法事而言。盖半斋点心云者,献斋回向之法事,有点心之飨应也。集古录有判斋字。曰:绹父子为唐显人,仍世宰相,而楚尤以文章见称。世传绹为文喜以语简为工,常饭僧。僧判斋,绹于佛前跪炉谛听。而僧唱言。曰:令狐绹设斋,佛知,盖以此识其好简,夷坚志。有一僧人,为人判水陆斋。意半判音同义亦通,故以判斋为半斋,判则与疏相近。

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