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Term Definition
城隍神《佛学大辞典》
(神名)陔余丛考三十五曰:“王敬哉冬夜笺记,谓城隍之名见于易,所谓城复于隍也。又引礼记天子大蜡八:水庸居其七,水则隍也,庸则城也。以为祭城隍之始,固已。然未竟名之为城隍也。按北史慕容俨镇郢城,梁大都督侯填等舟师至城外,城中先有神祠一所,俗号城王神。俨于是顺人心祷之。须臾风浪大起。凡断其荻洪铁锁三次。城人大喜,以为神助,遂破填等。隋书五行志,梁武陵王纪祭城隍神,将烹牛,有赤蛇绕牛口。是城隍之祀,盖始于六朝也。至唐则渐遍。唐文粹有李阳冰缙云县城隍记,谓城隍神祠典所无,惟吴越有之。是唐初尚未列于祀典。张曲江集有祭洪州城隍神文。杜甫诗有十年过父老,几日赛城隍之句。杜牧集有祭城隍祈雨文。则唐中叶各州郡皆有城隍。五代钱镠有重修墙隍神庙碑记,书大梁开平二年岁在武辰。顾宁人谓以城为墙。以戊为武,盖以朱全忠父名诚,曾祖名茂琳,故避其嫌名而改。陆放翁宁德县城隍记所谓唐以来郡县皆祭城隍是也。宋史苏缄殉节邕州。后交人入寇,见大兵从北来,呼曰:苏城隍来矣,交人惧,遂归。又范旺守城死,邑人为设像城隍以祭。(中略)吴澄记江州城隍庙曰:江右列郡,以汉颍阴侯灌婴配食(按查初白诗,今江西城隍即系灌婴,并非配食矣),明太祖初封京师城隍为帝。开封临濠东平和滁以王。府曰公,县曰侯。洪武三年去封号,但称某府县城隍之神。”
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