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Term Definition
塔《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又作塔婆、兜婆、偷婆、浮图等。皆梵语窣堵波(Stūpa,巴Thūpa)之讹略也。高积土石,以藏遗骨者。又名俱攞。译言聚、高显、坟、灵庙等。别有所谓支提或制底(Chaitya),言不藏身骨者。或通称为塔。亦曰支提。法华义疏十一曰:“依僧祇律有舍利名塔婆,无舍利名支提。地持云:莫问有无,皆名支提。明了论云:支提,此云净处。”行事钞下二曰:“杂心云:有舍利名塔,无者名支提。塔或名塔婆,或云偷婆,此云冢,亦云方坟。支提云庙,庙者貌也。”玄应音义六曰:“诸经论中,或作薮斗波,或作塔婆,或作兜婆,或云偷婆,或言苏偷婆,或作支提浮都,亦言支提浮图,皆讹略也。正言窣堵波,此译云庙。或云方坟,此义翻也。或云大冢,或云聚相,谓累石等高以为相也。”西域记一曰:“窣堵波,即旧所谓浮图也。又曰鍮婆,又曰塔婆,又曰私鍮簸,又曰数斗波,皆讹也。”法华文句记三曰:“新云窣睹波,此云高显,方坟,义立也。谓安置身骨处也。”寄归传三曰:“大师世尊既涅槃后,人天并集以火焚之。(中略)即名此处以为制底。”塔有显密二教之别。显教以为揭高德之标帜,即所谓墓标,故限于佛乃至有德之比丘。密教以为大日如来之三昧耶形。五轮塔是佛体。非墓标。因而许为结缘追福。建于一般僧俗之墓处,俗曰石塔、塔婆、窣堵波者,指此五轮塔也。
塔主《佛学大辞典》
(职位)禅林之职名。守塔者。
塔之层级《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)探玄记八曰:“依长阿含经四人应起塔:一佛,二辟支,三声闻,四轮王也。真谛三藏引十二因缘经云八人应起塔:一如来,露盘八重已上,是佛塔。二菩萨,七盘。三缘觉,六盘。四罗汉,五盘。五那含,四盘。六斯陀含,三盘。七须陀洹,二盘。八轮王一盘。若见之不得礼,以非圣塔故也(所引之十二因缘经今不传)。又依僧祇律,凡僧亦起塔。谓持律法师,营事比丘,德望比丘,应起塔,既非圣人。总无露盘。仍使在屏处。若违之。则结罪。准此等文,今方为师造塔,广起露盘,非惟现人得罪,亦乃累彼先亡。深可悲也。”后分涅槃经上曰:“佛告阿难:佛般涅槃荼毗既讫,一切四众收取舍利置七宝瓶,当于拘尸那伽城内四衢道中起七宝塔,高十三层,上有相轮。”寄归传二曰:“或有收其设利罗为亡人作塔,名为俱攞。形如小塔,上无轮盖,然塔有凡圣之别,如律中广论。”毗奈耶杂事十八曰:“佛言:应可用砖两重作基,次安塔身,上安覆钵,随意高下。上置平头,高一二尺方二三尺,准量大小,中竖轮竿,次着相轮。其相轮重数或一二三四乃至十三。次安宝瓶。(中略)佛告长者:若为如来造窣睹波者,应可如前具足而作。若为独觉勿安宝瓶,若阿罗汉相轮四重,不还至三。一来应二,预流应一,凡夫善人,但可平头,无有轮盖。”已上十二因缘经所云之露盘,即为后分涅槃经所云之层,每级出四檐者。寄归传毗奈耶杂事所云之相轮,即今之所谓九轮。一就檐数,一就相轮而论差别也。资持记下一之四曰:“露盘即四檐也。(中略)凡僧不得出檐安级。今有出檐者由不知教,僭同上圣。(中略)相轮者,圆轮耸出,以为表相故也。”故凡圣皆许相轮。行事钞下一之四亦引用上出探玄记所引之僧祇律辨之。然则相轮谓为露盘,或覆钵下之斗形,谓为露盘。非经意也。
塔像《佛学大辞典》
(术语)塔与佛像。无量寿经下曰:“起立塔像,饭食沙门。”
塔印《佛学大辞典》
(印相)塔为大日如来三昧耶形之法印,故曰塔印。又手结塔形之印相。见“率都婆印”条。
塔头《佛学大辞典》
(术语)禅林之称。大寺德高之住僧入寂后,其徒弟,慕师德,不去塔头,构房而住。称为某大德之塔头何院。必别有院号。其后只为寺中别坊之名。临济录曰:“师到达磨塔头,塔主云:长老先礼佛先礼祖。师云:佛祖俱不礼。”
塔婆《佛学大辞典》
(术语)见“塔”条。
塔寺坚固《佛学大辞典》
(术语)五坚固之一。佛灭第四之五百年,坚固造立塔寺之时期也。
塔庙《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)梵语塔,一译庙。梵汉双举曰塔庙。玄应音义六曰:“或作塔婆,或云兜婆。正言窣睹波,此译云庙。”法华经见宝塔品曰:“我之塔庙为听法华经故涌出其前。”
Glossary 2.5 is technology by Black Sheep Research