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Term Definition
天《佛学大辞典》
(界名)梵名提婆Deva,又名素罗Sura,光明之义,自然之义,清净之义,自在之义,最胜之义。受人间以上胜妙果报之所,其一分在须弥山中,其一分远在苍空,总名之为天趣。六趣之一也。又不拘其住处指一切之鬼神,名为天,如鬼子母神谓之鬼母天。又一切好妙之物名为天,如人中之好华谓之天华。大乘义章六末曰:“天者如杂心释有光明故名之为天,此随相释。又云天者净故名天,天报清净故名为净。若依持地所受自然,故名为天。”义林章六本曰:“神用光洁自在名天。”法华文句四曰:“天者天然自然胜、乐胜、身胜、故天为胜,众事悉胜余趣,常以光自照,故名为天。”止观四曰:“自然果报名为天。”婆娑论百七十二曰:“于诸趣中彼趣最胜最乐最善,最善最妙高故名为天。”嘉祥金光明经疏曰:“外国呼神亦名为天。”智度论曰:“天竺国法,名诸好物皆为天物。”
天上《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)欲界之六欲天及色界无色界之诸天也。
天上四塔《佛学大辞典》
(名数)帝释天建佛之四塔:一箭塔,取佛为太子时所带之一箭建塔。二发塔,取太子出家时之发建塔。三钵塔,取佛将成道时受牧女乳糜之钵建塔。四佛牙塔,取佛荼毗时之佛牙建塔。见佛本行集经十三、十九、三藏法数十三。
天上天下唯我独尊《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)佛初生时之语,是三世诸佛之常法也。长阿含经一曰:“佛告比丘:诸佛常法,毗婆尸菩萨,当其生时从右胁出,专念不乱。从右胁出堕地行七步无人扶持,遍观四方,举手而言:天上天下唯我为尊。要度众生生老病死,此是常法。”瑞应经上曰:“到四月八日夜明星出时,化从右胁生堕地,即行七步,举右手住而言:天上天下唯我独尊。三界皆苦,何可乐者?”因果经一曰:“菩萨即便堕莲花上,无扶持者自行七步,举其右手而师子吼,我于一切天人之中最尊最胜。无量生死于今尽矣,此生利益一切人天。”无量寿经上曰:“舍彼天宫降神母胎,从右胁生现行七步,光明显曜普照十方。无量佛土六种震动,举声自称,吾当于世为无上尊。”智度论三十八曰:“佛自说菩萨本起。菩萨初生时,行七步,口自说言:我所以生者,为度众生故。言巳默然,乳哺三年,不行不语。渐次长大,行语如法。一切婴儿小时未能行语,渐次长大能具人法。今云何菩萨初生能行能语,后便不能语,当知是方便力故。”
天下半《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)陈释真观,通礼诗儒道群经,又涉琴碁。沙门洪偃称其具八能,时人语曰:钱塘有真观,当天下一半。
天中天《佛学大辞典》
(术语)佛之尊号。天为人之所尊,佛更为天之所尊,故曰天中天。又天有五种,第五之第一义天,即佛也。佛为天之至极,故曰天中天。又为佛之小字。释氏要览中曰:“一日抱太子谒释迦增长大天神庙,庙神石为像,即起礼太子足。王曰:我子于天神中更为尊胜,宜名天中天。”法华经化城喻品曰:“圣主天中天。”
天主《佛学大辞典》
(天名)诸天之帝主也。最胜王经八曰:“有王法心论,名天主教法。”
天乐《佛学大辞典》
(杂名)天人之伎乐也。法华经化城喻品曰:“四王诸天,为供养佛,常击天鼓,其余诸天,作天伎乐。”

又(术语)三乐之一。生欲界诸天所受之欢乐也,修十善业者生天感之。见大宝积经一百一。

天乘《佛学大辞典》
(术语)五乘之一。能修十善,乘之而生于欲界之六天,能修禅定,乘之而生于色界无色界之诸天,是名天乘。
天亲《佛学大辞典》
(人名)Vasubandhu,梵名婆薮槃豆,又曰婆修槃陀,译曰天亲,新作伐苏畔度,译曰世亲。波薮译曰世天,毗纽天之异名也。以父母求世天亲爱而名。或言为天帝之弟,故名天亲,婆薮槃豆传曰:“婆薮槃豆者,北天竺富娄沙富罗国(译曰丈安国)人,佛灭后九百年而出,兄弟三人,皆名婆薮槃豆,长兄别称阿僧伽(译曰无着),小弟别称比邻持跋婆(比邻持母名,跋婆译曰儿),中子独以通名称。初于阿逾阇国萨婆多部出家,研学小乘既通大毗婆沙论之义,为众讲之,一日作一偈,共作六百偈,称为俱舍论。后用无着之示诲,忏悔小执之非,欲断舌谢其罪。无着云:汝既以舌诽谤大乘,更以此舌赞大乘可也。于是造唯识论等诸大乘论,弘宣大教,寿八十,寂于阿逾阇国。”付法藏传六曰:“尊者阇夜多临灭度时,告比丘婆修槃陀:无上妙法,今付属汝,汝当至心护持。婆修盘陀受教,解一切之修多罗,广化众生。”百论序疏曰:“婆薮云天亲,天亲者天帝之弟也。生于阎浮提而伏修罗,是割那舍阇人,云丈夫国。原为小乘学,通五百部之小乘。兄阿僧伽是大乘人,见弟盛弘小乘而覆大道,特现病曰:汝罪过深重,我为之病。弟曰若尔则是舌之过,当断舌。曰:不如更造大乘论而宣流大道。于是作五百部之大乘论,时人呼为千部论主。”西域记五曰:“伐苏畔度菩萨,唐言世亲,旧曰婆薮槃豆。译曰天亲,误也。”
天亲传《佛学大辞典》
(书名)婆薮槃豆传之略名。
天亲摄论《佛学大辞典》
(书名)五摄论之一。
天人《佛学大辞典》
(术语)天与人,即六趣中之天趣与人趣也。无量寿经上曰:“天人归仰。”又曰:“诸天世人。”法华经宝塔品曰:“移诸天人,置于他土。”

又(天名)天上之人,天界生类之总称,如天人之五衰等。

天人五衰《佛学大辞典》
(术语)见“五衰”条。
天人师《佛学大辞典》
(传说)如来十号之一。梵语曰舍多提婆摩菟舍喃Devamanuṣyaśāstṛ,为天与人之教师,故名天人师。智度论二曰:“复名舍多提婆摩菟舍喃。舍多秦言教师,提波言天,摩菟舍喃言人,是名天人教师。云何名天人教师?佛示导是应作是不应作,是善是不善,是人依教行,不舍道法,得烦恼解脱报,是名天人师。问曰:佛能度龙神等堕余道中生者,何独言天人师?答曰:度余道中生者少,度天人中生者多。”
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