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Term Definition
小三灾《佛学大辞典》
(术语)灭劫末所起之三种灾厄也。见“三灾”条。【小三灾】(术语)一住劫之中,有二十增减劫,其起于减劫之终者,谓之小三灾:一、刀兵灾,时人为非法,瞋毒转盛,相见即起猛利之害心,随手所执,皆为利刀,互相残害也。二、疾疫灾,时人具如前诸过失。故吐非人毒,而流行疾疫,遇之便命终。三、饥馑灾,时人具如前诸过失故,天龙怒而不降雨,世间久遭饥馑,多分命终。俱舍论十二曰:“从诸有情起虚诳语,诸恶业道后后转增故,此洲人寿量渐减,乃至极十小三灾现,此小三灾中劫末起。三灾者:一刀兵,二疾疫,三饥馑。(中略)刀兵灾起极唯七日,疾疫灾起七月七日,饥馑七年七月七日,度之便止。”
小乘《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵名希那衍Hinayānā,对于大乘之称。求佛果为大乘,求阿罗汉果辟支佛果为小乘。佛果者谓开一切种智,为尽未来际众生化益之悟。阿罗汉果与辟支佛果,虽有浅深之别,然皆为灰身灭智归于空寂涅槃之悟。乘者,运载之义,指使人乘之至其悟岸之教,以四谛为至阿罗汉果之教体,以十二因缘为至辟支佛果之教体。如此小乘有二道,故亦谓之二乘。又此二乘为佛成道后十二年间经律论三藏之所诠,故天台称之为三藏教。佛灭后印度之小乘分总别二十之流派,来我国后,遂立宗名俱舍,成实,及律三者,即小乘也。是皆为佛随他意之说法,姑以调熟下劣根性者也。法华经方便品曰:“佛自住大乘,如其所得法定慧力庄严,以此度众生,自证无上道大乘平等法,若以小乘乃至化一人我则堕悭贪。”法华经游意下曰:“今以二义往收则事无不尽,一者赴小机说名曰小乘,二者赴大机说称曰大乘。”
小乘三印《佛学大辞典》
(术语)小乘之三法印,对于大乘之一实相印而言。见“三法印”条。
小乘三藏《佛学大辞典》
(术语)四部之阿含经等为经藏,四分五分十诵律等为律藏,六足发智论等为论藏。此三藏之根本皆佛说,于佛入灭时分部帙而结集者。佛所说之大乘,义理之分际远异于小乘,故于别处结集之而单名摩诃衍藏Mahāyānapiṭaka,以对小乘之三藏。是智度论之意也。智度论百曰:“如摩诃迦叶于耆阇崛山中集三藏,佛灭度后文殊师利弥勒诸大菩萨,亦将阿难集是摩诃衍。(中略)三藏是声闻法,摩诃衍是大乘法。”法华经安乐行品曰:“贪着小乘三藏学者。”天台据之,于四教之中呼小乘教为三藏教。然于小乘宗之中如经量部不许佛说之论藏。谓论藏者如来灭后弟子之所说。故世亲于俱舍论之初叙有部宗之义曰:“离择法定无余能灭诸惑胜方便,由惑世间漂有海,因此传,佛说对法。”此依经量部之意示论藏之佛说,非己所信,故置传字者。因而众贤于正理论之初痛驳之。今案结集小乘之三藏以三藏为小乘之别名,虽在佛灭后,而佛在世时,其教法中既有三藏分别之存在,其证文不一。智度论百曰:“佛在世时无有三藏名,但有持修多罗比丘,持毗尼比丘,持摩多罗迦Mātṛka比丘。”(摩多罗迦论藏之异名也)。毗奈耶杂事十四曰:“缘在室罗伐罗城,时有苾刍名毛血。(中略)见佛说法于三藏经说地狱苦。”同十八曰:“三藏经中有疑处除我更无能答者。”同三十四曰:“贼言:圣者仁是三藏。持经律论耶?苾刍亦同前答。(中略)佛言汝等苾刍善闲经律论。”此等皆佛在世之事也。因是可知佛在世已有三藏之名矣。
小乘九部《佛学大辞典》
(术语)十二部经完具曰大乘经,此中除方广,授记,无问自说之三部,仅说九部曰小乘经。法华经方便品曰:“我此九部法,随顺众生说,入大乘为本。”见“九部”条。
小乘二家涅槃《佛学大辞典》
(术语)有部宗谓涅槃为本来实有。断烦恼时,起所谓离系得之绳属之于行者之身也,成实宗谓涅槃为无法,生死因果之无,是涅槃也。大乘玄论三曰:“小乘二师者,毗昙计无为为涅槃。是善是常本有,在烦恼外,断烦恼起得得之属于行者,成论明涅槃但是无法。”
小乘二部《佛学大辞典》
(名数)小乘之分派,诸说不定,今记其梗概,有二部四部五部十八部二十部之五种。但四部五部为以戒律为本之异说,二部,十八部等则正为宗义之分派也。二部即上座部大众部。此有二种:一为结集之异同,非宗义之别称。佛灭度之年,夏安居中于窟内与窟外两处结集三藏。窟内以上座之耆宿多,故名曰上座部。窟外以年少之僧多,故名曰大众部。佛法一味,略有异诤,上座大众之称滥觞于是。二佛灭百年后阿输迦王时依大天比丘五事之说,小乘佛法,初分二派,昔时界外结集之苗裔,多附同大天之义,故取昔名称为大众部。反对大天之义者,多昔时界内结集之缘裔,故亦袭昔名,名为上座部,是小乘分宗之初也。以此二部为根本,渐次分部执遂成十八,二十。但是乃文殊问经,宗轮论之一说,更有此时生五部分派之说。见五部条。
小乘五部《佛学大辞典》
(名数)佛灭后百年阿输迦王时,上座大众之根本,以大天而生部别,此时优婆鞠多阿罗汉之下于律藏分出五部。故此五部之分派为古来律宗之所用。然其五部与有部宗所传之五部及南山一家之五部,稍有相违。但义净三藏于二者皆不取之。见“五部律”条。
小乘偏渐戒《佛学大辞典》
(术语)对于大乘戒之圆顿称小乘戒曰偏渐。功德不圆满,故为偏,非顿成佛之法,故曰渐。
小乘十八不共法《佛学大辞典》
(名数)佛之十力,四无畏,三念住,大悲,合而为十八。俱舍论廿七曰:“成佛尽智位修不共佛法,有十八种。(中略)佛十力,四无畏,三念住,及大悲,如是合名为十八不共法。唯于诸佛尽智时修,余圣所无,故名不共。”无量寿经下曰:“十力无畏不共法声。”
小乘十八部《佛学大辞典》
(名数)据宗轮论之说,佛灭后百年依大天分上座大众二部,其第二百年由大众部出一说部,说出世部,鸡胤部,多闻部,说假部之五部,又于第二百年末出制多山部,西山住部,北山住部之三部,合有八部之末家,加入本家之大众部则为九部。又上座部于三百年之初,分为萨婆多部与雪山部(萨婆多部〔译云说一切有部〕后世称为毗昙宗),后同于三百年由萨婆多部出犊子部,又由犊子部出法上,贤胄,正量,密林山之四部,次由萨婆多部更出化地部,次由化地部出法藏部,于三百年之末,由萨婆多部更出饮光部,于第四百年由萨婆多部复出经量部。萨婆多部共出九部加入雪山部为十部。复加前大众部之八部为十八部。其他有义净所见之十八部。以上十八部为末部之分派,加之以根本上座大众之二部为二十部。今表示之如图。
小乘四部《佛学大辞典》
(名数)义净三藏渡天时,天竺之小乘宗唯有四部。寄归传一曰:“诸部流派,生起不同,西国相承大纲唯四。注云:一、阿难耶莫诃僧祇尼迦耶,周云圣大众部。分出七部,三藏各有十万颂,合三十万颂,周译可成千卷。二、阿离耶悉他陛攞尼迦耶,周云圣上座部。分出三部,三藏多少同前。三、阿离耶慕攞萨婆悉底婆拖尼迦耶,周云圣根本说一切有部。分出四部,三藏多少同前。四、阿离耶三蜜栗底尼迦耶,周云圣正量部。分出四部,三藏三十万颂。然而部执所传多有同异,且依现事言共十八,分为五部,不闻西国耳。”
小乘四门《佛学大辞典》
(名数)天台所判。一小乘有门,发智六足论等之所说。二小乘空门,成实论之所说,三小乘亦有亦空门,毗勒论之所说,四非有非空门,迦旃延经之所说。
小乘外道《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)小乘与外道。又小乘即外道也。外道小乘二十种,外道中小乘外道论师是也。
小乘寺宾头卢为上座《佛学大辞典》
(故事)梵网经法藏疏一曰:“又闻,西国诸小乘寺以宾头卢为上座,诸大乘寺以文殊师利为上座。”支那寺院原以憍陈如或宾头卢为上座,后依不空三藏之奏请,以文殊为上座。表制集二曰:“伏望自今已后令天下,食堂中于宾头卢上特置文殊师利形像以为上座,询之圣典具有明文。(中略)斯乃天竺国皆尔,非僧等鄙见,仍请永为恒式。”一心戒文上曰:“凡佛寺上座置大小二座:一者一向大乘寺,置文殊师利菩萨以为上座。二者一向小乘寺,置宾头卢和上以为上座。三者大小兼行寺,置文殊与宾头卢两上座。小乘布萨日宾头卢为上座,坐小乘次第。大乘布萨日文殊为上座,坐大乘次第。”
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