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Term Definition
方丈《佛学大辞典》
(堂塔)禅林之正寝,住持之住所也,故称寺主曰方丈,因其住于此也。古来之说维摩居士之石室,四方有一丈,丈室之名,始基于此。法苑珠林感通篇曰:“吠舍厘国宫城周五里,宫正北六里有寺塔,是说维摩经处。寺东北四里许有塔,是维摩故宅基,尚多灵神。其舍叠砖,传云:积石,即是说法现疾处也。于大唐显庆年中敕使长吏王玄策,因向印度过净名宅,以笏量基,止有十笏,故号方丈之室也。”传灯录禅门规式曰:“长老既为化主,即处于方丈,同净名之室,非私寝之室也。”案方丈之名,先唐王玄策已有其说。王简栖头陀寺碑文曰:“宋大明五年始立方丈茅茨。”注,高诱曰:“堵长一丈,高一丈,面环一堵,为方丈。铣曰:宋孝武皇帝时也,言立方丈之室,覆以茅茨之草,以置经家也。”则方丈唯言僧坊之狭小而已,必非由于维摩也。昙鸾之往生论注上曰:“如维摩方丈,苞容有余,何必国号无赀,乃称广大?”
方便《佛学大辞典》
(术语)梵语伛和Upāya,有二释:一对般若而释。二对真实而释。对般若而释,则谓达于真如之智为般若,谓通于权道之智为方便。权道乃利益他之手段方法,依此释则大小乘一切之佛教,概称为方便。方者方法,便者便用,便用契于一切众生之机之方法也。又方为方正之理,便为巧妙之言辞。对种种之机,用方正之理与巧妙之言也,又方者众生之方域,便者教化之便法,应诸机之方域,而用适化之便法,谓之方便。是皆通一大佛教而名之也。往生论下曰:“正直曰方,外己曰便。(中略)般若者达如之慧名,方便者通权之智称,达如则心行寂灭,通权则备省众机。”法华文句三曰:“方者法也,便者用也。法有方圆,用有差会。三权是矩是方,一实是规是圆。若智诣于矩,则善用偏法逗会众生。若智诣于规,则善用圆法逗会众生。”嘉祥法华义疏四曰:“一者就理教释之,理正曰方,言巧称便。即是其义深远,其语巧妙,文义合举,故云方便。此释通于大小。二者众生所缘之域为方,如来适化之法称便。盖欲因病授药,藉方施便,机教两举,故名方便。此亦通于大小。”法华玄赞三曰:“施为可则曰方,善逗机宜曰便。(中略)方是方术,便谓稳便,便之法名方便。”大集经十一曰:“能调众生悉令趣向阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,是名方便。”对真实而释,则谓究竟之旨归为真实,假设暂废为方便。故又名善巧,或曰善权。即入于真实能通之法也。利物有则云方,随时而施曰便。依此释,则为小乘入大乘之门,故谓之方便教。三乘为通于一乘而设者,故亦名方便教。因斯判一切法为方便真实之二也。法华文句三曰:“又方便者门也,门名能通,通于所通。方便权略,皆是弄引,为真实作门。真实得显,功由方便。从能显得名,故以门释方便,如开方便门,示真实相。”法华义疏四曰:“方便是善巧之名,善巧者智之用也。理实无三,以方便力,是故说三,故名善巧。”法华玄赞三曰:“权巧方便,实无此事,应物权现,故言方便,谓以三业方便化也。此对实智名为方便,利物有则曰方,随时而济名便。”天台更有一释,以解法华经方便品二字,谓方者秘也,便者妙也,谓秘密之妙义也。盖法华已前之方便,为对真实之方便,方便之外有真实,因而谓之为体外之方便。今三乘之方便,即显一乘之实法者,是乃方便品中所说,故谓之为体内之方便,又曰同体之方便。是为秘密之妙义,尔前一向不明之,至今始开说,故曰秘妙。法华文句三曰:“又方者秘也,便者妙也。(中略)王顶上唯有一珠,无二无别。指客作人是长者子,亦无二无别。如斯之言,是秘是妙。”
方便乘涅槃《佛学大辞典》
(术语)三涅槃之一。善巧之化益终,而应身亦当灭也。
方便假门《佛学大辞典》
(术语)为诱导于真实之道,而假设之教也。
方便力《佛学大辞典》
(术语)方便之力用也。
方便化土《佛学大辞典》
(术语)方便化身土之略。
方便化身《佛学大辞典》
(术语)弥陀报身中之化身也。报第十九第二十之方便愿,而化现边地懈慢之佛身也。
方便化身土《佛学大辞典》
(术语)日本见真大师所立二土之一。方便者,对真实而言,化身土者,对真佛土而言。为摄以自力修诸行,及行念佛而愿求净土者,弥陀如来权现一种之净土,使之往生也。其土非真实之报土,故曰方便,以化身佛为教主,非报身所居之土,故曰化身土。如观经所说十三观所观之净土及九品土。又菩萨处胎经所说之懈慢界,无量寿经所说之疑城胎宫皆是也。教行信证六本曰:“谨显化身土者,佛者如无量寿佛经说真身观佛是也,土者观经净土是也。复如菩萨处胎经等说,即懈慢界是也。亦如大无量寿经说,即疑城胎宫是也。”
方便品《佛学大辞典》
(经名)法华经二十八品中第二品之名。说三乘方便,一乘真实者,故名。又维摩经第二品之名。叙维摩居士以种种方便化益众生,且以方便而现疾于毗耶离城,故名。
方便土《佛学大辞典》
(术语)方便有余土,及方便化身土之略称。
方便声《佛学大辞典》
(术语)谓于五转中显方便究竟,恶字之声也。其点画谓之方便点,又依五字转生之义谓之方便轮。见悉昙藏二。
方便引入《佛学大辞典》
(术语)以方便引入无缘之众生于佛道也。
方便愿《佛学大辞典》
(术语)弥陀四十八愿中之第十九愿与第二十愿也。此二愿以弘愿(第十八愿)为使归入真如门之方便,誓假设要门真门因果之愿,故名。第十九愿为要门,第二十愿为真门也。
方便智《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又云权智,对实智之称,达于方便法之智也。又行方便之智也。见“权智”条。大乘义章十九曰:“知一乘真实之法,名为实智。了知三乘权化之法,名方便智。”
方便有余土《佛学大辞典》
(术语)台家所立四土之一。声闻缘觉二乘究竟证果者,及地前菩萨,当生界外之净土也。此等人皆修空观之方便道而断见思(谓四住也)之惑,故谓之方便,未修中观,随之无明之惑未尽,故曰有余。天台观经疏曰:“修方便道断四住惑,故曰方便。无明未尽,故曰有余。”
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