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Term Definition
极七有《佛学大辞典》
(术语)与极七返同。
极七返《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又作极七有,极七生。预流之圣者,不断修惑者。于欲界之人与天,七返往来受生中,必圣道成就,证罗汉果,故谓之极七返。此七往来中,于人中有七度之中有,七度之生有,于天中有七度之中有,七度之生有。合有二十八生,而七之数同,故略云极七生。犹言七处善,七叶树。但云二十八生者,除最初得道之身,盖若于人趣得预流果者,七生天上,有七之中有与生有,又七生人中,有七中有,七生有,于其最后之人中生有入于涅槃,又于天趣得预流果者,下生于人,有七中有,七生有。上生于天,有七中有,七生有,于其最后之天上入于涅槃。故知除最初得道之身也。若取之,则为二十九生。问:何故限于七生而无第八生?答曰:是以身之相续限于七生而所有之圣道成就故也。圣道之力,法尔而然,犹如七步蛇,第四日疟。而此极七生乃言预流果之最钝根者,至其利根者,有一生而直证阿罗汉果者。俱舍论二十三曰:“颂曰:未断修断失,住果极七返。论曰:诸住果者,于一切地修所断失都未断时,名为预流生极七返。七返言显七往返生,是人天中各七生义,极言为显受生最多,非诸预流皆往七返故。(中略)彼从此后别于人中极多,结七中有生有,天中亦然,总二十八。皆七等故说极七生,如七处善,及七叶树。(中略)若于人趣得预流果,彼还人趣得般涅槃。于天趣得,还于天趣。何缘彼无受第八有?相续齐此,必成熟故。圣道种类,法应如是,如七步蛇,第四日疟。”十住论曰:“初果圣者,睡眠懒惰,不至二十九有。”
极七返有《佛学大辞典》
(术语)与极七返同。见极七返项。
极乐《佛学大辞典》
(界名)Sukhāvati,佛土名。阿弥陀佛之国土。又作安养,安乐,无量清净土,无量光明土,无量寿佛土,莲华藏世界,密严国,清泰国等。梵名须摩提。译曰妙乐。诸事具足圆满,惟有乐而无有苦也。阿弥陀经曰:“从是西方过十万亿佛土,有世界,名曰极乐。其土有佛,号阿弥陀。今现在说法。(中略)其国众生无有众苦,但受诸乐,故名极乐。”无量寿经上曰:“法藏菩萨,今已成佛,现在西方。去此十万亿刹,其佛世界名曰安乐。”般舟三昧经行品曰:“去此间千亿佛刹,其国名须摩提。”平等觉经一曰:“无量清净佛,作佛已来凡十小劫,所居国名须摩提,正在西方,去是阎浮刹地界千亿万须弥山佛国。”称赞净土经曰:“于是西方去此世界过百千俱胝那庾多佛土,有佛世界名曰极乐,其中世尊名无量寿及无量光。”悲华经三曰:“大王!汝见西方,过百千万亿佛土,有世界,名尊善无垢。彼界有佛名尊音王,(中略)如是诸佛悉灭度已,复过一阿僧祇劫等阿僧祇劫,入第二恒河沙等阿僧祇劫。是时世界转名安乐,汝于是时当得作佛,号无量寿。”鼓音声经曰:“西方安乐世界,今现有佛号阿弥陀,(中略)其国号曰清泰,圣王所住。”观音授记经曰:“西方过此亿百千刹,有世界名安乐,其国有佛号阿弥陀。”秘藏记上曰:“华藏世界者,最上妙乐在其中,故曰极乐。当知极乐与华藏,虽名异而非异所。”天台弥陀经义记曰:“彼有三名:极乐对苦,安养从用,无量寿逐人为国。”
极乐世界《佛学大辞典》
(术语)界为界别之义明其为极乐之净土,非在秽土之限界者也。
极乐化生《佛学大辞典》
(术语)极乐之往生人有胎生与化生二种。疑佛智而修种种善业之人,生于边地之宫殿,五百岁间不能闻见三宝。是名胎生。信佛智之人随九品之行业各化生于莲华中,身相光明顿具足,名曰化生。无量寿经下曰:“若有众生,明信佛智乃至胜智,作诸功德,信心回向。此诸众生,于七宝华中,自然化生。跏趺而坐,须臾之顷,身相光明,智慧功德,如诸菩萨,具足成就。”
极乐报化《佛学大辞典》
(术语)弥陀之极乐国土,为报土、为化土,诸宗各有异论。天台净影谓之化土。道绰善导谓之报土。慈恩或唯谓之报土,或谓之报化二土。日本之源信,则以极乐为报土,以处胎经所说极乐之边地懈慢界为化土。日本之见真,推源信之意,以观经所说九品之净土及菩萨处胎经所说之懈慢界,并无量寿经所说之疑城胎宫,皆为化土,以无量寿经所说之极乐为报土。但此化土为报中之化,非三土中第三之化土,于报中分真假二土也。然则真假虽异,皆为酬报大悲之愿者(报土酬第十八愿,化土酬第十九二十愿),其假皆为报土也。故道绰善导所定之是报非化,不背于此。教行信证五曰:“既以真假是酬报大悲愿海,故知报佛土也。良假佛土,业因千差,土复应千差,是名方便化身化土。”
极乐曼陀罗《佛学大辞典》
(图像)图记极乐庄严之曼陀罗也。亦云净土曼陀罗。
极乐海会《佛学大辞典》
(术语)极乐之圣众相依而为法会,其广大如海,故云。
极位《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)极证悟之位。谓佛果也。探玄记一曰:“唯是极位大菩萨境。”文句三之一曰:“若极位者,则一切下位而皆不知也。”
极光净天《佛学大辞典》
(界名)旧译曰光音天。新译曰极光净天。色界第二禅天之最上天也。大火灾坏灭世界后。成劫之初,此天天人次第下生而为大梵天及人等。俱舍颂疏八曰:“第二静虑有三天者:一少光天,于二禅内光明最少故,名光天。二无量光天,光明转增量难限故,名无量光天。三极光净天,光明胜前遍照自地故,名极光。”见“光音天”条。
极十岁《佛学大辞典》
(术语)减劫者,人寿渐减,其极至于十岁,此时现小三灾云。俱舍论十二曰:“此洲人寿量渐减,乃至极十,小三灾现。”
极唱《佛学大辞典》
(杂语)究竟之言说。金鞞论曰:“双林最后,极唱究竟之谈。”秘藏宝钥下曰:“真如受薰之极唱。”
极喜《佛学大辞典》
(术语)菩萨十地之初地谓为极喜。见“极喜地”条。
极喜三昧耶《佛学大辞典》
(术语)又名悦喜三昧耶,大三昧耶真实印,素啰多大誓真实印。即谓行者发菩提心,灭除诸障,既为金刚萨埵,观自他无别,为同体大悲时,自住于无上欢悦之想也。大教王经一曰:“尔时薄伽梵复入极喜王大菩萨三昧耶,所生萨埵加持,名金刚三摩地,一切如来极喜三昧耶也。”普贤念诵仪轨曰:“应作是思惟:我身既成普贤菩萨,发是心,令无边有情界成就解脱,于此三摩地中观一切有情自他无别,为同体大悲。”即是也。金刚界降三世三昧耶会之降三世明王,住此三昧。手执大悲弓箭,是为其本誓,以坚固清净菩提心之弓箭射元品无明之怨敌,大乐化他之大喜,无有间断。是谓极喜三昧耶。若真言行者欲住此三昧,则结大誓真实印,二羽为金刚缚,忍愿入掌而相交合,檀慧禅智四指面,相合如独般金刚杵,以忍愿触心上,诵唵三昧耶斛苏啰多娑怛鍐之真言。是表大悲之箭,射生死厌离之心也。由结此印而触心故,金刚萨埵,遍入身心,速与成就,意欲希望,诸愿皆得。又见莲华部心念诵仪轨,普贤修行念诵仪轨等。
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