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Term Definition
住持《俗语佛源》
护持佛法,使之久住于世间的意思。如《圆觉经》卷上:“一切如来,光严住持。”又如《梁高僧传》卷十一:“此五罗汉,次第住持。”用于僧职意义的住持之称,早在南北朝期间已经产生了。《金石萃编》卷七八《东林寺碑》记载:“(梁)有果、[往/日]二法师,僧宝所钦,克和止观,法物为大,用继住持。上座昙杰,寺主道廉、都维那道贞等,皆沐浴福河,栖止净业。”从这段记载可见,“住持”之职不在上座、寺主、都维那“三纲”之列,也不是禅宗首先设置。《敕修百丈清规·住持章》说:“(百丈)始奉其师为住持,而尊之曰长老。”应非“住持”始有的事实。“住持”也称“方丈”,大致上是某一寺院的精神领袖,一般由年高德劭的僧人担任。住持精通教义,擅长说法,指导弘法,通常不直接参与具体的寺务。也称为住持僧。如明·都穆《都公谈纂》卷上:“陈氏既平,上至南京,置颠仙于灵谷寺,颠仙日与住持僧聒恼。”后道教亦沿用此称,称主持道观者。如清·阮葵生《茶余客话》卷七:“常见庙宇寺观稍有规模者,必慎择住持,演法蓄众。”住持又可作动词用,谓担任住持之职。如宋·蔡·《铁围山丛谈》卷五:“(道楷)大观间,住持东都之净因禅院。”又如清·孔尚任《桃花扇·栖真》:“这里是女道住持,从不留客的。”此处指道观中的当家。(李明权)
住著《俗语佛源》
唐·杜甫《戏为韦偃双松图歌》有“松根胡僧憩寂寞,庞眉皓首无住著”的诗句,这是描写画面的。住著在佛教中是执著的意思。唐·希运说:“如今但一切时中,行住坐卧,但学无心……亦无住著,终日任运腾腾,如痴人相似。”(见《黄檗断际禅师宛陵录》)所谓学无心,就是清心寡欲,不计得失,排除一切私心杂念,断除所有粗细烦恼。只有这样,才能做到无住著。(无名氏)
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