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Term Definition
和尚《俗语佛源》
古印度称师长为Upadhyaya,音译为邬波陀耶或邬波遮耶,省音为乌社、和尚等。意为亲教师、博士等。古又意译为近诵、力生。其义为弟子受业于师,经常近随于师受经诵经,仗师之力而生法身、智慧功德。和尚有两种:一是出家的受业和尚,俗称剃度和尚;二是受比丘戒的坛上和尚,俗称戒和尚或得戒和尚。若接某和尚衣钵法流者亦可称他为法和尚或得法和尚。对女性和尚的称呼与男性和尚相同,只在前冠一“尼“(梵语阴性词缀-ni)称作尼和尚以表女性。现在有称尼僧、尼和尚为尼姑。依据律制,和尚之尊称原本限于僧,到西晋怀帝永嘉四年(310),西域佛图澄来洛阳,深受石勒、石虎敬重,号曰大和尚,这是国王公卿称僧人为和尚之始。唐代有鉴真大和尚、不空大和尚的尊称,是指传戒和传法和尚。汉地佛教丛林(僧团)里的职称有严格规定,全寺僧人称这个大僧团的住持一人为和尚,其余僧人则不能称和尚。和尚任期已满,则称退居和尚,俗称老和尚。由于佛教在中国历史悠久,和尚一词深入民间,一般俗人不知佛教内部的称呼,凡见僧人都一律称作和尚,按其年龄大小称小和尚、大和尚和老和尚。有些乡村地方知其俗姓者,甚至冠以俗姓称某和尚等,这是极不妥当的。(无名氏)
和尚在钵盂在《俗语佛源》
“钵”是梵语钵多罗patra的省音译,意译为“盂”,合称“钵盂”。钵盂用泥、铁等制作,扁圆形,口略小,是和尚用来化缘的食器,也是和尚随身携带的“六物”之一。因此,俗语说“和尚在钵盂在”。或比喻一事物的存在要依赖另一事物的存在。如元·马致远《黄粱梦》第二折:“恁时节和尚在钵盂在,今日个福气衰,看何时冤业解。”或比喻不知是谁。如元·朱凯《昊天塔》第三折:“知道是和尚在钵盂在,知道是他受苦也俺受苦。”(李明权)
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