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Term Definition
宝塔《俗语佛源》
佛塔俗称“宝塔”,又称“浮屠”、“浮图”。如清·顾张思《土风录》卷四:“本是众宝装饰,故称宝塔,今则砖瓦所成动称宝塔矣。”又如陈毅《延安宝塔歌》:“延安有宝塔,巍巍高山上。”宝塔起源于古印度,本有两类:一类是窣堵波(Stupa,或称浮图Buddhastupa),“塔”是省音译,意为方坟、灵庙等,是收藏佛舍利和高僧遗骨的建筑。《说文解字》中没有“塔”字,最早见于晋·葛洪的《字苑》。一类是支提(Chaitya),不放舍利、遗骨,而放佛像、经卷等。相传释迦牟尼佛涅槃后,八国国王分取其舍利,造塔供奉。后阿育王立佛教为国教,据说造了“八万四千”宝塔。印度的窣堵波一般为复钵状的半圆冢,传入中国后,同中国故有的建筑形式相结合,形成习见的楼阁式、密檐式等,用木、砖、石等建造,亭亭玉立,千姿百态。宝塔的平面以八角或四方形居多。层次通常为单数,五、七、九级居多。宝塔分为塔刹、塔身和地宫三大部分。藏传佛教的塔,如北京北海的白塔,与印度窣堵波的形制比较接近。一说,宝塔为“七宝塔”的省称,指用“七宝”(众宝)装饰之塔。典出《法华经·见宝塔品》:“多宝佛于宝塔中分半座与释迦牟尼佛,而作是言:释迦牟尼佛,可就此座。即时释迦牟尼佛入其塔中,坐其半座,结跏趺坐。尔时大众见二如来在七宝塔中狮子座上结跏趺坐。”佛教认为造塔功德很大,故佛教徒广建佛塔,使佛塔星罗棋布,为大好河山生色不少。在语词中,塔亦泛指高耸细长的塔形建筑物,如灯塔、钟塔等。(李明权)
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