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Term Definition
木鱼《俗语佛源》
可供打击而发声的东西,印度人称为Ghanta(犍槌),意为声鸣、打木等。在寺院中,犍槌用于集众、报时等。晋代法显谓,他在于阗瞿摩帝大乘寺见“三千僧共犍槌食”(《佛国记》)。“木鱼”应是一种中国化的犍槌。《隋书》和《唐律疏议》中提到的“木鱼”是一种鱼形的木质符信,作用类似于虎符。唐·司空图《上陌梯寺怀旧僧》诗云:“松日明金像,山风向木鱼。”可见至迟在唐代,寺院中已普遍使用木鱼了。原先的木鱼是刻木为长条形的“直鱼”,又称“长版”或“梆”,悬于库堂之侧,用于集僧、报时。《敕修百丈清规》谓:“木鱼,斋粥之时长击二通”,又谓“木鱼,报更则随更次第击之”,即指“直鱼”而言。稍后又产生一种刻木中空的“团鱼”,唐人亦称为“鱼鼓”。相传鱼昼夜常醒。作鱼形,是为警觉信众,防止昏惰。“团鱼”形制较多,用于念佛诵经时调整音节,一般为深红色或涂金,还有龙形或双鱼形的。吃斋、敲木鱼念佛的形象,民间是熟悉的。如张天翼《儿女们》:“他瞟了那边一眼,瞥见五姨太太敲着木鱼念经。”后来,僧人亦有敲木鱼报晓或化缘的。如宋·孟元老《东京梦华录》载:“每日交五更,诸寺院行者打铁牌子或木鱼,循门报晓,”又如清·纪昀《阅微草堂笔记·滦阳消夏录二》:“一日,有游僧乞食于塾外,木鱼琅琅,自辰逮午不肯息。”明代以后,木鱼又逐渐发展为戏曲、曲艺和民乐中的打击乐器之一。(李明权)
Glossary 2.5 is technology by Black Sheep Research