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Term Definition
横死《俗语佛源》
指自杀、被害或受意外灾祸而死。《药师经》:“救脱菩萨言:‘阿难,汝岂不闻如来所说九横死耶!是故教以咒药方便。’”该经所说九种横死是:一、得病无医,二、王法诛戮,三、非人夺精气,四、火焚,五、水溺,六、恶兽吞食,七、堕崖,八、毒药咒诅,九、饥渴所困。因这九种原因致死的都属于横死。横死属于恶业招致的恶果。《宋书·柳元景传》:“世祖严暴异常,元景虽荷宠遇,恒虑及祸……世祖崩,(江夏王)义恭、元景等并相谓曰:‘今日始免横死!’”横死一词亦有用之于诗的,如唐·王建《空城雀》诗:“报得黄口莫啾啾,长尔得成无横死!”(无名氏)
横说竖说《俗语佛源》
多方取譬,反复详述,以求详尽,使对方容易理解,谓之“横说竖说”。如明·郎瑛《七修类稿·诗文一》:“说须出自己之意,横说竖说,以抑扬详瞻为上。”语本于禅宗。《景德传灯录·希运禅师》:“且如四祖下牛头融大师,横说竖说,犹未知向上关棙子。”多方取譬,旁敲侧击,毕竟不许一语道破,正是禅宗说“话头”的特色。禅宗有顿悟的南宗和渐悟的北宗。横说属于顿悟,竖说属于“渐悟”。禅宗以“顿悟”为主,自称“宗门”,称经教为“教门”。在这个意义上,“横说”为“宗门”,“竖说”为“渐门”。佛经上还有“横遍十方,竖穷三世”之说,“横”属时间,“竖”属空间。再如儒家有经书,又有纬书,亦可称为“横说竖说”。(李明权)
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